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Covenant and Communion:

The Biblical Theology of Benedict XVI

By Scott W. Hahn

We have to enter into a relationship of awe and obedience toward the Bible, which nowadays is frequently in danger of being lost. — Pope Benedict XVI

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Abbreviations 9

1 Ignorance of Scripture is Ignorance of Christ:
The Theological Project of Joseph Ratzinger 13

2 The Critique of Criticism: Beginning the Search
for a New Theological Synthesis 

3 The Hermeneutic of Faith:
Critical and Historical Foundations for a Biblical Theology  41     

4 The Spiritual Science of Theology:
Its Mission and Method  in the Life of the Church  63                                   

5 Reading God’s Testament to Humankind:
Biblical Realism, Typology, and the Inner Unity of Revelation  91  

6 The Theology of the Divine Economy:
Covenant, Kingdom, and the History of Salvation 115                              

7 The Embrace of Salvation:
Mystagogy and the Transformation of Sacrifice

8 The Cosmic Liturgy:
The Eucharistic Kingdom  and the World as Temple 163

9 The Authority of Mystery:
The Beauty and Necessity of the Theologian’s Task 187


Unless otherwise noted, all documents of Benedict's pontificate can be found at www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/index .htm.

The following abbreviations are used for the works of Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger / Pope Benedict XVI that are frequently cited. When available, the original publication date appears in parentheses next to the publication date of the English translation.


Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger. In the Beginning: A Catholic Understanding of the Story of Creation and the Fall. Translated by Boniface Ramsey. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995 (1986).

Benedict XVI

John F. Thornton and Susan B. Varenne, eds. The Essential Pope Benedict XVI: His Central Writings and Speeches. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2007.


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. Gospel, Catechesis, Catechism: Sidelights on The Catechism of the Catholic Church. San Francisco: Ignatius, 1997 (1995).


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. Called to Communion: Understanding the Church Today. Translated by Adrian Walker. San Francisco: Ignatius, 1996 (1991).


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. Co-Workers of the Truth:
Meditations for Every Day of the Year. Edited by Irene Grassl. Translated by Mary Frances McCarthy and Lothar Krauth. San Francisco: Ignatius, 1992.


Joseph Ratzinger. Dogma and Preaching. Translated by
Matthew J. O'Connell. Chicago: Franciscan Herald, 1985 (1973).


Joseph Ratzinger. Church, Ecumenism, and Politics:
New Essays in Ecclesiology.
New York: Crossroad, 1988 (1987).


Joseph Ratzinger. Eschatology: Death and Eternal Life.
Translated by Michael Waldstein. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1988 (1977).


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. God Is Near Us: The Eucharist, the Heart of Life. Edited by Stephen Otto Horn and Vinzenz Pfniir. Translated by Henry Taylor. San Francisco: Ignatius, 2003 (2001).


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. Feast of Faith: Approaches to a Theology of the Liturgy. Translated by Graham Harrison. San Francisco: Ignatius, 1986 (1981).


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. "Biblical Interpretation in Crisis." In The Essential Pope Benedict XVI: His Central Writings and Speeches. Edited by John E Thornton and Susan B. Varenne, 243-58. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2007.


Pope Benedict XVI. Jesus of Nazareth: From the Baptism in the Jordan to the Transfiguration. Translated by Adrian J. Walker. New York: Doubleday, 2007.


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. The Spirit of the Liturgy. Translated by John Saward. San Francisco: Ignatius, 2000.


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. "Relationship between Magisterium and Exegetes." Address to the Pontifical Biblical Commission. In L'Osservatore Romano. Weekly Edition in English. July 23, 2003.


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. Behold the Pierced One: An Approach to a Spiritual Christology. Translated by Graham Harrison. San Francisco: Ignatius, 1986 (1984).


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. Pilgrim Fellowship of Faith: Horn and Vinzenz Pfniir. Translated by Henry Taylor. San Francisco: Ignatius, 2005 (2002).


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. "Preface." In The Jewish People and Their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible, 11-19. Pontifical Biblical Commission. Boston: Pauline Books and Media, 2003.


Joseph Ratzinger. "Primacy, Episcopate, and Apostolic Succession." In The Episcopate and the Primacy, 37-63. Karl Rahner and Joseph Ratzinger. New York: Herder and Herder, 1962.


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. Principles of Catholic Theology: Building Stones for a Fundamental Theology. Translated by Mary Frances McCarthy. San Francisco: Ignatius, 1987 (1982).


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. Many Religions, One Covenant: Israel, the Church, and the World. Translated by Graham Harrison. San Francisco: Ignatius, 1999 (1998).


Joseph Ratzinger. "Revelation and Tradition." In Revelation and Tradition, 26-49. Karl Rahner and Joseph Ratzinger. New York: Herder and Herder, 1966.


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. A New Song for the Lord:Faith in Christ and Liturgy Today. Translated by Martha M. Matesich. New York: Crossroad, 1996 (1995).


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. The Nature and Mission of Theology: Approaches to Understanding Its Role in the Light of Present Controversy. Translated by Adrian Walker. San Francisco: Ignatius, 1995 (1993). 


Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. Truth and Tolerance: Christian Belief and World Religions. Translated by Henry Taylor. San Francisco: Ignatius, 2004 (2003).


Pope Benedict XVI. On the Way to Jesus Christ. Translated by Michael Miller. San Francisco: Ignatius, 2005 (2004).


Ignorance of Scripture is Ignorance of Christ:

The Theological Project of Joseph Ratzinger

The Most Urgent Priority

Never before in the history of the Catholic Church has a world-class biblical theologian been elevated to the papacy. Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger’s election on April 19, 2005, brought to the Chair of St. Peter one of the world’s finest theological minds. He was a public intellectual long engaged in dialogue over the crucial issues of the modern period, especially the crucial relationships between faith and reason, freedom and truth, history and dogma. 

The pontificate of Pope Benedict XVI, to a degree not seen perhaps since the medieval papacy of Gregory the Great, has borne the stamp of a distinctive biblical theology. There is an intensely biblical quality to his pastoral teaching and he has demonstrated a keen concern for the authentic interpretation of sacred Scripture.

For Benedict, the Church lives, moves, and takes its being from the Word of God––through whom all things were created in the beginning, through whom the face of God was revealed in the flesh of Jesus Christ, and through whom God’s new covenant is witnessed to in the inspired texts of Scripture and made present in the divine liturgy.

Benedict’s command of the biblical texts, the patristic interpretative tradition, and the findings of historical and literary scholarship represents the full flowering of the Catholic biblical renewal which culminated in Dei Verbum, the Second Vatican Council’s constitution on divine revelation. Ratzinger himself, as a young theologian, had a hand in drafting that Vatican II document.1

a young theologian, Ratzinger himself had a hand in drafting that Vatican II document. If the first half of the twentieth century was marked by the emergence of three renewal movements—the biblical, the patristic, and the liturgical—then we see the convergence of these movements in Dei Verbum. In the theology of Benedict we see their integration and coordination.

More than any other theologian in his time, Benedict has articulated a biblical theology that synthesizes modern scientific methods with the theological hermeneutic of spiritual exegesis that began in the New Testament writers and patristic commentators and has continued throughout the Church’s tradition. In fact, there has been no other Catholic theologian in the last century, if ever, whose theology is as highly developed and integrated in explicitly biblical terms.

Yet these facts have gone largely unnoticed in the growing body of secondary literature on Benedict’s theological thought and vision. He himself has characterized his theology as having a “biblical character.2 Nonetheless, even the best of these recent studies pay little if any attention to this dimension of his work.3 When, in early 2007, he published Jesus of Nazareth, the first of a projected two-volume work of spiritual Christology, many were genuinely surprised at the note of urgency sounded by the 80-year-old pontiff:

Since my election to the episcopal see of Rome I have used every free moment to make progress on the book. As I do not know how much more time or strength I am still to be given, I have decided to publish the first ten chapters . . . because it struck me as the most urgent priority to present the figure and message of Jesus in his public ministry, and so to the help foster the growth of a living relationship with him.4

Jesus of Nazareth is a significant contribution to biblical Christology and a deep expression of Benedict's theological vision. To those of us who have been studying Benedict closely for many years now, Jesus of Nazareth came not as a curious surprise, but as a fitting dénouement. It is the culmination of his theological method, pastoral concerns, and ardent sense of the needs of the hour in the Church.

That is why I have written this essay. I have had the privilege of introducing two of Joseph Ratzinger’s works to the English-speaking world, 5 and in recent years have grown increasingly aware of how profoundly my own work has been influenced by my encounter with his thinking over nearly a quarter-century. In the pages that follow, I hope to offer an appreciation of how and why Benedict engages in theology and biblical interpretation. I also hope to present a kind of synthesis of his work, suggesting the main outlines of his biblical theology. I write as a professional theologian and exegete, and as one who believes that Benedict’s vision has much to teach those of us in this privileged guild. It is a theology of great power and beauty.

I stress that what I offer here is an essay. In these pages I want to listen to Benedict, to follow his patterns of thought, and to carefully attend to his priorities and concerns. I want to allow him to speak as much as possible, which is why what follows might be called an exercise in explanatory theology. In some places, I have had to resist the temptation to present a simple catena of his thoughts. While I have resisted that temptation, I have still tried to assist in the presentation of Benedict’s own ideas, not simply advance my own understandings of these issues.

This is not, then, a treatise or a dissertation. Such works will need to be written on the many facets of Benedict’s wide-ranging theological project. But before that work can be done adequately, I believe that we need to understand the foundations of his project, which rest in his approach to and appropriation of sacred Scripture.

Benedict is less a systematic thinker than he is a symphonic thinker. This essay will undoubtedly reflect that. His writings show a cast of mind that is more comparable to that of the Church Fathers than to that of traditional dogmatic and systematic theologians such as a Thomas Aquinas or Matthias Scheeben. In the Fathers we find the notion that truth consists of a unit of diverse elements much as a symphony brings into a single, harmonious whole the music played on a variety of instruments.  This is how it is with the biblical theology of Benedict. Even his occasional writings, which make up the bulk of his oeuvre, are usually composed like a polyphonic melody from many differentiated strains—scriptural, historical, literary, liturgical, and patristic.

A Brief Theological and Ecclesial Résumé

The former Joseph Ratzinger was a young academic theologian with a very bright future when, in 1977, he was chosen to be archbishop of the historic Bavarian diocese of Munich and Freising. He took for his episcopal motto a biblical expression: “cooperators in the truth” (3 John 8). This phrase expressed his sense of the continuity between his theological work and his new service in the administrative hierarchy of the Church.

Despite all the differences in modality, what is involved was and remains the same: to follow the truth, to be at its service. And, because in today’s world the theme of truth has all but disappeared, because truth appears to be too great for man and yet everything falls apart if there is no truth; for these reasons, this motto also seemed timely in the good sense of the word.6

In practical terms, however, his election to the episcopacy brought to an end his promising career as an academic theologian. He would seldom again have the opportunity for sustained scholarly research and writing, a situation about which he still occasionally expresses regret. Writing of his calling to Munich, he noted: “I felt that . . . at this period of my life—I was fifty years old—I had found my own theological vision and could now create an oeuvre with which I would contribute something to the whole of theology.7

In forewords or afterwords to his books, he sometimes expresses disappointment that his professional obligations have made it impossible to develop his ideas with the depth and precision that he would like.8 Nonetheless, in the last quarter-century, Benedict has produced a substantial body of biblical-theological work––books, articles, speeches, homilies, and more. This work reflects the wide range of his study and interests, and the keen, symphonic turn of his mind. Close study of this body of writings suggests that, had Professor Ratzinger been left alone to pursue his scholarly passions, his achievements would have rivaled or surpassed those of the greatest Catholic theologians of the last century––figures such as Hans Urs von Balthasar and Karl Rahner. His opera omnia are anticipated to fill sixteen volumes, indicating the scope of his interests and the breadth of his accomplishment.9

It is beyond my scope here to provide a complete résumé of Benedict’s career, but I should note a few highlights.10 He received his doctorate in theology from the University of Munich in 1953, writing his dissertation on Augustine’s exegesis and ecclesiology. He lectured in fundamental theology at several German universities before assuming the chair in dogmatic theology at the University of Tübingen in 1966. He was an expert theological peritus, or adviser at the Second Vatican Council (1963–1965) and, as I noted above, made important contributions to the council’s pivotal document on divine revelation, Dei Verbum.11 In addition to hundreds of articles published in academic and ecclesial journals, he is the author of books of enduring importance and influence on the nature and mission of theology,12 patristic theology and exegesis,13 ecclesiology,14 liturgical theology,15 dogmatic theology,16 the Christian symbol of faith,17 and christology.18 He was the co-founder of an important theological journal, Communio, in collaboration with some of the last century’s most influential theologians, including Henri de Lubac and Hans Urs von Balthasar.

As the highest ranking doctrinal official in the Catholic Church for nearly twenty years, he helped oversee the teaching of the faith in Catholic universities and seminaries throughout the world and played an important role in the work of the International Theological Commission and the Pontifical Biblical Commission. He was a decisive intellectual force in the development of the
Catechism of the Catholic Church, the first comprehensive statement of Catholic belief and practice to be published in more than 450 years. Reflecting his clear priorities, Benedict has said that of the Catechism: “As far as I know, there has never been until now a catechism so thoroughly formed by the Bible.19  

The Crisis of Faith in Christ

Benedict’s theological training and career were shaped by his encounter with the historical-critical method of biblical interpretation, which by the late 1940s had become the dominant theoretical model in the academy.20 In autobiographical reflections, he has related how confident scholars were at that time that the method gave them “the last word” on the meaning of biblical texts. He relates a story, for instance, about a leading Tübingen exegete who announced he would no longer entertain dissertation proposals because “everything in the New Testament had already been researched.”21 

Well schooled in its techniques and findings, Benedict has nonetheless emerged as a forceful critic of what he describes as the theoretical hubris and practical limitations of historical criticism. For him, the issues involved are far from merely academic. Indeed, the stakes in the debate could hardly be higher. How we read and interpret the Bible directly affects what we believe about Christ, the Church, the sacraments, and the liturgy.22

Benedict knows and often quotes the solemn truth expressed memorably by St. Jerome: “Ignorance of the Scriptures is ignorance of Christ.23 And he has gone so far as to suggest that a near exclusive reliance on the historical-critical method has resulted in widespread ignorance about the true nature, identity, and mission of Christ. Referring to the method, he has written: “The crisis of faith in Christ in recent times began with a modified way of reading sacred Scripture––seemingly the sole scientific way.24

As we will see in the chapters that follow, for Benedict an exclusive reliance on historical-critical methods has resulted in a diminishment or reduction in the figure of Jesus—who is no longer believed to be the “Lord” or the Son of God, but is considered to be simply “a man who is nothing more than the advocate of all men.” This viewpoint, he adds, “has emphatically impressed itself on the public consciousness and has made major inroads into the congregations of Christian believers in all churches.25

This concern for the distortion in the image of Jesus forms the wider context for Jesus of Nazareth, and explains the sense of exigency Benedict felt about its publication. It also explains why he took the unprecedented step of devoting a key passage to the issues to the issues of biblical interpretation in the Church in his inaugural homily as Bishop of Rome, Echoing many of the concerns and preoccupations of his theological career, Benedict stated:   

In the Church, Sacred Scripture, the understanding of which increases under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, and the ministry of its authentic interpretation that was conferred upon the Apostles, are indissolubly bound.

Whenever Sacred Scripture is separated from the living voice of the Church, it falls prey to disputes among experts. Of course, all they have to tell us is important and invaluable; the work of scholars is a considerable help in understanding the living process in which the Scriptures developed, hence, also in grasping their historical richness.

Yet science alone cannot provide us with a definitive and binding interpretation; it is unable to offer us, in its interpretation, that certainty with which we can live and for which we can even die. A greater mandate is necessary for this, which cannot derive from human abilities alone. The voice of the living Church is essential for this, of the Church entrusted until the end of time to Peter and to the College of the Apostles.

This power of teaching frightens many people in and outside the Church. They wonder whether freedom of conscience is threatened or whether it is a presumption opposed to freedom of thought. It is not like this. The power that Christ conferred upon Peter and his Successors is, in an absolute sense, a mandate to serve. The power of teaching in the Church involves a commitment to the service of obedience to the faith.

The Pope is not an absolute monarch whose thoughts and desires are law. On the contrary: the Pope's ministry is a guarantee of obedience to Christ and to his Word. He must not proclaim his own ideas, but rather constantly bind himself and the Church to obedience to God's Word, in the face of every attempt to adapt it or water it down, and every form of opportunism.26

These are most unusual words for a papal homily. However, these are unusual times in the Church. That Benedict chose these words in setting out the vision for his pontificate should tell us a great deal about his theology. In a sense, this essay will be an unfolding of these words.

While Benedict has spoken of “the authority of mystery.27 in the context of the liturgy, this expression is also helpful for describing his integral vision of the Church as the handmaiden of the Word of God. The Church, as he sees it, lives under the authority of mystery. It is in dialogue with the Word that revealed the mystery of God’s saving plan in history, and it is in obedient service to the Word as it seeks final accomplishment of God’s plan.  

Benedict has a bold understanding of the mystery of the Word in history and in the human heart. As I write, he has just presided over a Synod of Bishops that brought to Rome more than two hundred and fifty bishops from around the world. For nearly a month, they met daily from morning to night to discuss a topic personally chosen by Benedict, “The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church.” To open the Synod, Benedict offered a beautiful meditation on Psalm 118, in which he laid out his vision in terms that can only be described as breathtaking. His words reflect a lifetime of contemplation and anticipate the themes we are about the study:

Humanly speaking, the word, my human word, is almost nothing in reality, a breath. As soon as it is pronounced it disappears. It seems to be nothing. But already the human word has incredible power. Words create history, words form thoughts, the thoughts that create the word. It is the word that forms history, reality.

Furthermore, the Word of God is the foundation of everything, it is the true reality. . . .Therefore, we must change our concept of realism. The realist is the one who recognizes the Word of God, in this apparently weak reality, as the foundation of all things.

… All things come from the Word, they are products of the Word. “In the beginning was the Word.” In the beginning the heavens spoke. And thus reality was born of the Word, it is creatura Verbi.28

The remainder of the chapter cannot be displayed due to publisher's limitation.


1. For a historical perspective, see Joseph G. Prior, The Historical Critical Method in Catholic Exegesis, Tesi Gregoriana Serie Teologia 50 (Rome: Pontifical Gregorian University, 1999).

2. Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger with Peter Seewald, Salt of the Earth: Christianity and the Catholic Church at the End of the Millennium, trans. Adrian Walker (San Francisco: Ignatius, 1997), 66.

3. See for instance these important scholarly studies: Maximilian Heinrich Heim, Joseph Ratzinger: Life in the Church and Living Theology, trans. Michael J. Miller (San Francisco: Ignatius, 2007) and Tracey Rowland, Ratizinger’s Faith: The Theology of Pope Benedict XVI (New York: Oxford, 2008). While valuable in many respects, neither of these works engages at all with the foundations of Benedict’s theological vision in his interpretation of Scripture.

4. Jesus of Nazareth, xxiv.

5. See my forewords to Religions and Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, The Meaning of Christian Brotherhood (San Francisco: Ignatius, 1993 [1960]).

6. Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger,  Milestones: Memoirs, 1927–1977, trans. Erasmo Leiva-Merkiakis (San Francisco: Ignatius, 1998), 153.

7. Ratzinger with Seewald, Salt, 81.

8. See, for example, Theology, 8; Religions, 19.

9. Publication of Benedict’s collected works began in late 2008 by the German publisher, Herder, and the Vatican’s Libreria Editrice Vaticana. As announced, the opera will include: vols. 1-2: his undergraduate and doctorate theses and other writings about Augustine and Bonaventure, the subjects of those theses; vol. 3: his inaugural lecture, “The God of Faith and the God of the Philosophers,” delivered at Bonn in 1959, along with other writings on faith and reason and the historical and intellectual foundations of Europe; vol. 4: Introduction to Christianity (1968), along with other writings on the profession of faith, baptism, discipleship and Christian life; vol. 5: writings on creation, anthropology, the doctrine of grace, and Mariology; vol. 6: works of christology, including Jesus of Nazareth (2007); vol. 7: writings on Vatican Council II, including notes and comments from that period; vol. 8: writings on ecclesiology and ecumenism; vol. 9: writings on theological epistemology and hermeneutics, in particular on the understanding of Scriptures, Revelation, and Tradition; vol. 10: Eschatology (1977) and other writings on hope, death, resurrection, eternal life; vol. 11: writings on the theology of the liturgy; vol. 12: writings on the sacraments and ministry; vol. 13: collected interviews; vol. 14: homilies from before his election as pope; vol. 15: autobiographical and personal writings; vol. 16: complete bibliography and comprehensive index of all the volumes. See Sandro Magister, “In the ‘Opera Omnia,’ of Ratzinger the Theologian, the Overture is All about the Liturgy,” available at: http://chiesa.espresso.repubblica.it/articolo/208933?eng=y.

10. For a good overview, especially of his early academic writings, see Aidan Nichols, The Thought of Benedict XVI: An Introduction to the Theology of Joseph Ratzinger (London: Burns & Oates, 2005). For comprehensive bibliographies, see Nichols, Thought of Benedict XVI, 297–330; Heim, Joseph Ratzinger, 539–563; Pilgrim, 299-379.

11. For an excellent window into his work at the Second Vatican Council, see Jared Wicks, “Six Texts by Prof. Joseph Ratzinger as Peritus Before and During Vatican Council II, Gregorianum 89 no.2 (2008): 233–311; see also Ratzinger, Milestones, 120–131.

12. See Theology and Principles.

13. See Joseph Ratzinger, The Theology of History in St. Bonaventure, trans. Zachary Hayes (Chicago: Franciscan Herald, 1971).

14. See The Meaning of Christian Brotherhood.

15. See Liturgy.

16. See Eschatology.

17. See Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, Introduction to Christianity, trans. J. R. Foster (San Francisco: Ignatius, 1990 [1968]).

18. See Jesus.

19. Catechism, 61; see also 65n24.

20. Eschatology, 271–272.

21. Pilgrim, 27.

22. See Song, 30: "The historical Jesus can only be a non-Christ, a non-Son [of God] .... As a result, the Church falls apart all by herself; now she can only be an organization made by humans that tries, more or less skillfully and more or less benevolently, to put this Jesus to use. The sacraments, of course, fall by the wayside—how could there be a real presence of this 'historical Jesus' in the Eucharist?"

23. Jerome, Commentary on Isaiah 1:1, quoted in Second Vatican Council, Dei Verbum, Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation, (November 18, 1965), 25, in The Scripture Documents: An Anthology of Official Catholic Teachings, ed. Dean P. Béchard, S.J. (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2002), 19–31, at 30. For an example of Benedict’s use of Jerome, see his Address to the Participants in the International Congress Organized to Commemorate the Fortieth Anniversary of the Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation “Dei Verbum,” (September 16, 2005), in L’Osservatore Romano, Weekly Edition in English (September 21, 2005), 7. As Pope, Benedict has devoted two public teachings to Jerome. See the General Audiences of November 7 and November 14, 2007.

24. Way 9.

25. Way 8; see also 61-62.

26. Pope Benedict XVI, Homily, Mass of Possession of the Chair of the Bishop of Rome. (May 7, 2005), in L’Osservatore Romano, Weekly Edition in English (May 11, 2005), 3. Frequently in his teaching Benedict appears to be in “dialogue” with the ideas of influential exegetes, sometimes even referring to them by name. See, for instance, his criticism of Adolf von Harnack and the “the individualism of liberal theology,” during the course of his General Audience of March 15, 2006, in L’Osservatore Romano, Weekly Edition in English (March 22, 2006), 11.

27. Song, 32.

28. Pope Benedict, XVI, Meditation during the first General Congregation of the 12th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops (October 6, 2008).

Taken from
Covenant & Communion, by Scott W. Hahn, published and copyright 2009 by Darton, Longman and Todd Ltd, London, and used by permission of the publishers.

Version: 11th November 2009

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