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The Mystery of Mary Coredemptrix

in the Papal Magisterium

  by Arthur Burton Calkins

Part 2

In an allocution which he gave to newly-weds on 30 October 1933 Pius XI spoke in a similar vein.  He had just given these young couples a rosary and medal of Our Lady and commented on the latter gift:

The image of the Virgin, of the Mother of God reminds and gently admonishes that one must not pass a day without remembering the heavenly Mother, who was entrusted to us under the cross and united her sufferings and those of the Redeemer for the salvation of her children.[156]

He spoke in like manner to pilgrims from Vicenza a month later:

By the very nature of their relationship the Redeemer could not have not associated His Mother with His work.  For this reason We invoke her under the title of Coredemptrix.  She gave us the Savior, she accompanied Him in the work of Redemption as far as the Cross itself, sharing with Him the sorrows of the agony and of the death in which Jesus consummated the Redemption of mankind. [157]

This latter text is most interesting not only because of his use of the term Coredemptrix, but also because the Pope speaks of a kind of inner necessity [per necessità di cose] requiring Mary's participation in Jesus' passion and death.  He seems to be echoing here Benedict XV's conviction that Mary's involvement was necessary according to God's inscrutable plan, that is was "not without divine design" [non sine divino consilio] i.e., flowing from the "logic of the Incarnation" [uno eodemque decreto].

         We seem to have an echo of this same theme in a statement which Pius XII made in his Radio Message to the Marian Congress of the Union of South Africa on 4 May 1952:

Yes, dearly beloved, in the loving providence of God, it was Mary's "be it done unto me according to thy word" that made possible the passion and death and resurrection of the divine Redeemer of the world.  That is why we dare not separate the Mother from the son.  His death on Golgotha was her martyrdom; His triumph is her exaltation.[158]

         Pius XII's most brilliant and succinct assertion of Mary's joint share in the work of the redemption, however, occurs in his great Sacred Heart encyclical of 15 May 1956, Haurietis Aquas:

By the will of God, the most Blessed Virgin Mary was inseparably joined with Christ in accomplishing the work of man's redemption, so that our salvation flows from the love of Jesus Christ and His sufferings intimately united with the love and sorrows of His Mother. [159]

In this classic passage every word is carefully weighed and measured in order to make a declaration on the redemption and Mary's role in it which remains unparalleled for its clarity and precision.  No doubt for this reason it is included Denzinger- Hünermann's Enchiridion Symbolorum. [160]  Pius professes that "our salvation flows from the love of Jesus Christ and His sufferings" [ex Iesu Christi caritate eiusque cruciatibus] which are "intimately united with the love and sorrows of His Mother" [cum amore doloribusque ipsius Matris intime consociatis].  The Latin preposition ex indicates Jesus as the source of our redemption while three other Latin words, cum and intime consociatis indicate Mary's inseparability from the source.[161] Finally, let us note Pius' insistence on the fact that this union of Jesus with Mary for our salvation has been ordained "by the will of God" [ex Dei voluntate].

            In a sermon which John XXIII preached at the conclusion of the solemn novena in honor of the Immaculate Conception at Santi Apostoli on 7 December 1959 he also dwelt on the inner logic of Mary's "fiat" which found its conclusion on Calvary.  Speaking of the joy which came into the world at Mary's birth, he said:

This joy, however, is also a scarlet flower of sacrifice:  the sacrifice of the Blessed Mother of Jesus, who, having spoken her timely "fiat," at the same time agreed to share in the fate of her Son, the poverty of Bethlehem, in the self-denial of a hidden life, and in the martyrdom of Calvary. [162]

            Continuing in the line of his predecessors, Paul VI also attested to Mary's participation in the sacrifice of Jesus to the point of sacrificing herself.  In a Radio Message to invalid priest pilgrims at Lourdes on 30 July 1966 he spoke thus:

May the Immaculate Virgin, who pronounced the "fiat" of perfect conformity to the divine will and who, agreeing to become the Mother of the Incarnate Word, chose voluntary participation in the sufferings of her Son, the Redeemer, look kindly on the suffering yet confident band of these her sons, having been made worthy to follow Christ, with her, on the royal road of the holy Cross. [163]

Here he underscores the familiar theme that the "fiat" of the Annunciation leads to the cross, but -- even more -- insists that Mary's "fiat" represented a deliberate choice to participate in the sufferings of her Son.  In his Apostolic Exhortation Signum Magnum of 13 May 1967 he emphasized Our Lady's

charity, strong and constant in the fulfillment of her mission to the point of sacrificing herself, in full communion of sentiments with her Son who immolated Himself on the Cross to give men a new life. [164]

Eight years later, on 13 May 1975, he wove these two themes together in his Letter to Cardinal Suenens on the occasion of the 14th International Marian Congress:

It was the Holy Spirit that sustained the Mother of Jesus, present at the foot of His cross, inspiring her, as already in the Annunciation, with the Fiat to the will of the heavenly Father, who wished her to be maternally associated with the sacrifice of her Son for the redemption of mankind (cf. Jn. 19:25). [165]

            Like his predecessors, Pope John Paul II consistently maintains that   Mary's assent to the bloody sacrifice of the cross was the drawing out of all of the implications of her "yes" at the Annunciation.  The joyful fiat spoken to the Angel Gabriel becomes on Calvary the reason why the Pope could say in Guayaquil on 31 January 1985:

Crucified spiritually with her crucified son (cf. Gal. 2:20), she contemplated with heroic love the death of her God, she "lovingly consented to the immolation of this Victim which she herself had brought forth" (Lumen Gentium, 58). [166]

While it may seem audacious to some that the Pope should speak of Mary as "crucified spiritually with her crucified son", we note that in his text the Pope  supplies us with his point of reference.  It is Saint Paul's Epistle to the Galatians 2:20 where he asserts "I have been crucified with Christ".  If Paul could claim this of himself, there is all the more reason to say this of Mary on Calvary.  In an extemporaneous address to youth in Vicenza, Italy on 8 September 1991 the Pope offered a further commentary on what he had said in Guayaquil:

Then there is the moment of the crucifixion.  Certainly, when Jesus died on the cross, her very self, her heart, her motherhood, all was crucified.  When I wrote the Encyclical Redemptoris Mater I compared this moment in Mary's life to  a dark night, darker than all the nights which the souls of mystics have experienced throughout the Church's history. [167]

Here we find the Pauline terminology of coredemption applied to Mary's sacrifice of "her very self, her heart, her motherhood" in a way that is at once original and striking.  Again, speaking to youth, this time on 9 May 1993 in the sports stadium in Agrigento, Sicily the Holy Father spoke of Our Lady's self-offering in this way:

The Virgin of Nazareth precedes you on your way, the woman made holy  by the passover of the Son of God, she who offered herself with Christ for the redemption of all humanity. [168]

In this final quote the Pope deftly speaks of the offering of Mary as united to the offering of Christ.  Without taking away at all from the fact that the sacrifice of Christ is more than sufficient for the salvation of the world, the Pope's statement indicates that our salvation has effectively come about through the sacrificial offering of Christ to which is joined the self-offering of Mary.[169]

While it would be possible to quote numerous other texts from the teaching of John Paul II in support of Mary's sacrifice of herself on Calvary in union with Jesus, I wish to cite just one more, which comes from his Apostolic Letter Salvifici Doloris of 11 February 1984 and which can also serve as a marvelous recapitulation of his magisterium and that of his predecessors on this point:

It is especially consoling to note -- and also accurate in accordance with the Gospel and history -- that at the side of Christ, in the first and most exalted place, there is always His Mother through the exemplary testimony that she bears by her whole life to this particular Gospel of suffering.  In her, the many and intense sufferings were amassed in such an interconnected way that they were not only a proof of her unshakable faith but also a contribution to the Redemption of all. ... It was on Calvary that Mary's suffering, beside the suffering of Jesus, reached an intensity which can hardly be imagined from a human point of view but which was mysteriously and supernaturally fruitful for the Redemption of the world.  Her ascent of Calvary and her standing at the foot of the cross together with the beloved disciple were a special sort of sharing in the redeeming death of her Son. [170]

            Another citation from Salvifici Doloris may help to contextualize the truths which underlie the mystery of Mary as Coredemptrix:  "The sufferings of Christ created the good of the world's Redemption.  This good in itself is inexhaustible and infinite.  No man can add anything to it." [171] But at the same time "Mary's suffering [on Calvary], beside the suffering of Jesus ... was mysteriously and supernaturally fruitful for the Redemption of the world."  Thus the Pope strikes that careful balance which is always a hallmark of Catholic truth:  he upholds the principle that the sufferings of Christ were all-sufficient for the salvation of the world, while maintaining that Mary's sacrifice was nonetheless "a contribution to the Redemption of all."

          C.  The Joint Offering of Jesus and Mary

            Having amply reviewed how the papal magisterium presents Mary's offering of Jesus and her offering of herself on Calvary, let us now consider texts in which Pope John Paul II emphasizes how Mary's sacrifice is inseparable from that of Jesus, how, it is a "joint but subordinate action with Christ the Redeemer". [172] Let us begin with the beautiful commentary the Pope made on Lumen Gentium #58 in his catechesis of 2 April 1997:

With our gaze illumined by the radiance of the resurrection, we pause to reflect on the Mother's involvement in her Son's redeeming passion, which was completed by her sharing in his suffering.  Let us return again, but now in the perspective of the Resurrection, to the foot of the Cross where the Mother endured "with her only-begotten Son the intensity of his suffering, associated herself with his sacrifice in her mother's heart, and lovingly consented to the immolation of this victim which was born of her" (ibid., n. 58).

With these words, the Council reminds us of "Mary's compassion"; in her heart reverberates all that Jesus suffers in body and soul, emphasizing her willingness to share in her Son's redeeming sacrifice and to join her own maternal suffering to his priestly offering.

  The Council text also stresses that her consent to Jesus' immolation is not passive acceptance but a genuine act of love, by which she offers her Son as a "victim" of expiation for the sins of all humanity.

Lastly, Lumen Gentium relates the Blessed Virgin to Christ, who has the lead role in Redemption, making it clear that in associating herself "with his sacrifice" she remains subordinate to her divine Son. [173]

Let us note briefly how the Holy Father brings both of these dimensions of Mary's offering together by referring to her "compassion" or "suffering with" Jesus as well as insisting that her "consent to Jesus' immolation" was "a genuine act of love, by which she offers her Son as a 'victim' of expiation for the sins of all humanity."  Another point to be noted is how beautifully and carefully the Pope puts "the Mother's involvement in her Son's redeeming passion" into the proper theological perspective:  it is always to be understood as "subordinate", but at the same time "her sharing in his suffering" completes "her Son's redeeming passion".

            These two dimensions of Mary's offering are gracefully intermingled by the Holy Father in his catechesis of 10 September 1997 in which he presents Mary as "the Church's model for generously participating in sacrifice":

In presenting Jesus in the temple and, especially, at the foot of the Cross, Mary completes the gift of herself which associates her as Mother with the suffering and trials of her Son. [174]

The gift of herself is seen as completed in her association with the suffering of her Son whom she offered in the temple as an infant and now offers again on Calvary.

            This intermingling of Mary's offering of Jesus and of herself was magnificently expressed in the Pope's homily at the Commemoration of Abraham "Our Father in Faith" during the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000:

Daughter of Abraham in faith as well as in the flesh, Mary personally shared in this experience.  Like Abraham, she too accepted the sacrifice of her Son, but while the actual sacrifice of Isaac was not demanded of Abraham, Christ drank the cup of suffering to the last drop.  Mary personally took part in her Son's trial, believing and hoping at the foot of the Cross (cf. Jn. 19:25).

  This was the epilogue of a long wait.  Having been taught to meditate on the prophetic texts, Mary foresaw what awaited her and in praising the mercy of God, faithful to his people from generation to generation, she gave her own consent to his plan of salvation; in particular, she said her "yes" to the central event of this plan, the sacrifice of that Child whom she bore in her womb.  Like Abraham, she accepted the sacrifice of her Son. [175]

Here the reference to the amalgamating of the two sacrifices on the part of Mary is subtle but real.  Mary is compared to Abraham in that both of them gave their consent to the sacrifice of their only son, but in the case of Abraham, the consent was all that was required.  In the case of Mary, however, the sacrifice was carried out, effectively requiring of her the sacrifice of her maternal heart[176], indeed of her very life.

            The "joint but subordinate" sacrifice on the part of Mary has profound ecclesial reverberations.  In treating of the "woman clothed with the sun", who appears in the twelfth chapter of the Book of Revelation, as being an image of the Church and of Mary, the Pope makes this comment in his catechesis of 29 May 1996:

Identified by her motherhood, the woman "was with child and she cried out in her pangs of birth, in anguish for her delivery" (12:2).  This note refers to the Mother of Jesus at the Cross (cf. Jn. 19:25), where she shares in anguish for the delivery of the community of disciples with a soul pierced by the sword (cf. Lk. 2:35).  Despite her sufferings, she is "clothed with the sun" -- that is, she reflects the divine splendour -- and appears as a "great sign" of God's spousal relationship with his people.[177]

Here the Pope, in effect, proposes a datum of the tradition i.e., that while Mary gave birth to Jesus in a painless way, her intense sufferings in union with Jesus on Calvary were the birth pangs by which she "begets as her children all those who become [his] disciples".

            At the foot of the cross, then, Mary is not only a partner in the passion (socia passionis)[178], but is instrumental in giving birth to the Church.  Note well that there are two striking symbols for the generation of the Church on Calvary:  the pierced Heart of Jesus from which flows blood and water, "the fountain of sacramental life in the Church" [179] and the Heart of Mary to which the Holy Father makes an allusion in the above text by referring to Lk. 2:35.

            Quite clearly, there is a partnership for the sake of our salvation, but it is not a partnership of strict equality, as the Holy Father tells us in the same catechesis of 29 May 1996:

It was fitting that like Christ, the new Adam, Mary too, the new Eve, did not know sin and was thus capable of co-operating in the Redemption.

Sin, which washes over humanity like a torrent, halts before the Redeemer and his faithful Collaborator.  With a substantial difference:  Christ is all holy by virtue of the grace that in his humanity derives from the divine person:  Mary is all holy by virtue of the grace received by the merits of the Saviour. [180]

            Developing the notion of Mary's labor pains on Calvary for the birth of the Church (cf. Rev. 12:2), the Pope stated in his catechesis of 17 September 1997:

On Calvary, Mary united herself to the sacrifice of her Son and made her own maternal contribution to the work of salvation, which took the form of labour pains, the birth of the new humanity.

  In addressing the words "Woman, behold your son" to Mary, the Crucified One proclaims her motherhood not only in relation to the Apostle John but also to every disciple.  The Evangelist himself, by saying that Jesus had to die "to gather into one the children of God who are scattered abroad" (Jn. 11:52), indicates the Church's birth as the fruit of the redemptive sacrifice with which Mary is maternally associated. [181]

Always subordinate and secondary, nonetheless Mary's "maternal contribution to the work of salvation" is unique and the sacrifice by which the Church was born cannot be separated by her maternal collaboration.

V.   Evaluation

            At this point I deem it indispensable to introduce into this discussion #25 of the Second Vatican Council's Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium, a text of capital importance on the Pope's magisterium or teaching office:

This loyal submission of the will and intellect must be given, in a special way, to the authentic teaching authority [magisterium] of the Roman Pontiff, even when he does not speak ex cathedra in such wise, indeed, that his supreme teaching authority be acknowledged with respect, and that one sincerely adhere to decisions made by him, conformably with his manifest mind and intention, which is made known principally either (1) by the character of the documents in question, or (2) by the frequency with which a certain doctrine is proposed, or (3) by the manner in which the doctrine is formulated. [182]

On the basis of a careful analysis of this passage I have argued in my book Totus Tuus that the Pope's teaching on consecration or entrustment to Mary forms an important component of his "ordinary magisterium" [183]and that he has brought this doctrine to a new level of importance.

            I believe that an identical case may be made for his teaching on Mary's altogether unique role in the work of our redemption and even for his use of the term Coredemptrix.  I would certainly not argue that his use of the word Coredemptrix occurs in papal documents of the highest teaching authority or that he has proclaimed the doctrine or used the word in the most solemn manner.  I do believe, however, that my presentation here and in the other essays that I have written on this topic demonstrates beyond the shadow of a doubt that the Holy Father's teaching on Mary's unique collaboration in and contribution to the work of our redemption has brought the teaching to a new clarity and is an unmistakable component of his ordinary magisterium -- precisely on the basis of the second criterion indicated in Lumen Gentium #25, the frequency with which he has proposed this doctrine.  I will go further and argue that six instances of his use of the term Coredemptrix to characterize Our Lady's collaboration in the work of our redemption -- especially in the light of previous magisterial usage -- do not deserve to be cavalierly dismissed as "marginal [and] therefore devoid of doctrinal weight".[184]

            I am grateful to Father Ignazio Calabuig, O.S.M., one of the signers of the Czestochowa Declaration and President of the Pontifical Faculty Marianum, and his colleagues who have recently acknowledged that my study of the use of the term Coredemptrix published in Maria Corredentrice:  Storia e Teologia I was done with praiseworthy precision and clearly indicates that the title is not proscribed and is susceptible of a correct reading.  I still respectfully disagree with them, however, when they state that the word occurs only in documents of a non-magisterial character. [185]

            A final question and response:  "How do we best describe this secondary and subordinate, but nonetheless active and unique role willed by God for Mary in the work of our redemption?"  Our Holy Father has used a good number of descriptive titles such as collaborator and cooperator, associate and ally.  He has called her "the perfect co-worker in Christ's sacrifice" (perfetta cooperatrice del sacrificio di Cristo) [186] and "the perfect model for those who seek to be united with her Son in his saving work for all humanity". [187]

            This is a matter on which neither our present Holy Father nor any of his predecessors have pronounced and we are quite free to debate it.  Quite obviously scholars, theologians and persons of good will have varying opinions in this regard.  My argument would simply be that none of the one-word titles such as collaborator, cooperator, co-worker, associate, partner and ally sufficiently accentuates the uniqueness of Mary's role whereas others seem to me to be either lengthy phrases or cumbersome circum locutions.[188]

            While granting that five of Pope John Paul II's usages of the term Coredemptrix were passing references, I do not believe that these should be undervalued any more than the three usages by Roman Congregations at the beginning of the last century or the three usages by Pope Pius XI.  These are a testimony to the Church's living tradition and to the legitimate employment of the term.  What I would simply present here is that, once it has been made clear that the "co" in Coredemptrix does not mean equal to the Redeemer, but subordinate to him [189], it is arguable that it expresses the reality of Mary's altogether unique and active participation better than any other.

            In any case, the study of the magisterium on this matter convinces me that the Holy Spirit is moving the Church ineluctably and ever more compellingly in the direction of highlighting Mary's active role in our redemption.  We have seen that the papal teaching has become ever more vigorous and insistent in this regard -- and I have by no means been able to present all of it.  In fact, the output from this pontificate alone exceeds that of all the previous pontificates taken together!

            The more this teaching is studied, understood and proclaimed, the more powerful positive results we can expect for the Church and the world.  Indeed, the more we grasp Mary's divinely ordained role in our salvation, the more we are motivated to call upon her who is the Mediatrix of all graces and the Advocate of God's people.  In this dramatic hour of crisis it will certainly be argued by many that there are far more urgent matters to be dealt with and yet in the struggle with the powers of darkness which continues unabated, who has the Father given as our defense along with the "New Adam", if not the "New Eve"?  I believe that this is a profound truth which the Spirit has been speaking to the Church in modern times -- and never more than in our own day through our present Holy Father.

                                         Laus Cordibus Jesu Virginisque Matris Eius


AAS                             Acta Apostolicæ Sedis (1909 -- ).

ASS                              Acta Sanctæ Sedis (1865-1908).

Burke                           Thomas J. M. Burke, S.J., ed., Mary and the Popes:  Five Great Marian Letters (New York:  The America Press, 1954).

CDD                            Sacrosanctum Oecumenicum Concilium Vaticanum II:  Constitutiones, Decreta, Declarationes cura et studio Secretariæ Generalis Concilii Oecumenici Vaticani II (Vatican City:  Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, 1974).

D H                             Heinrich Denzinger, S.I., Enchiridion Symbolorum Definitionum et Declarationum de Rebus Fidei et Morum:  Edizione Bilingue (XXXVII) a cura di Peter Hünermann (Bologna:  Edizioni Dehoniane, 2000).

Flannery                       Austin Flannery, O.P., ed., Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents (Collegeville, MN:  Liturgical Press, 1975).

Foundations I              Mark I. Miravalle, S.T.D., (ed.), Mary -- Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate -- Theological Foundations -- Towards a Papal Definition? (Santa Barbara, CA:  Queenship Publishing, 1995).

Foundations II            Mark I. Miravalle, S.T.D., (ed.), Mary Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate, Theological Foundations II:  Papal, Pneumatological, Ecumenical (Santa Barbara, CA:  Queenship Publishing Company, 1997).

Il "calvario"                Alessandro M. Apollonio, Il "calvario teologico" della Coredenzione mariana (Castelpetroso, IS:  Casa Mariana Editrice, 1999).

Inseg                            Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, I (1978 ) (Città del Vaticano:  Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1979 ).

Inseg P                        Insegnamenti di Paolo VI, I-XVI (1963-1978) (Vatican City:  Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1963 1978).

Laurentin                      René Laurentin, Le titre de Corédemptrice:  Étude historique (Roma:  Marianum, 1951).

Maria                          Hubert du Manoir, S.J. (ed.), Maria:  Études sur         la Sainte Vierge 8 vols. (Paris:  Beauchesne et         Ses Fils, 1949-1971).

Mariology                    Juniper B. Carol, O.F.M. (ed.), Mariology 3 vols.        (Milwaukee:  Bruce Publishing Co., 1955-1961).

MGMO                        Pope Paul VI, Mary -- God's Mother and Ours (Boston:  St. Paul Editions, 1979).

OL                               Our Lady:  Papal Teachings, trans. Daughters of St. Paul (Boston:  St. Paul Editions, 1961).

MCat                           Pope John Paul II, Theotókos - Woman, Mother, Disciple:  A Catechesis on Mary, Mother of God with a Foreword by Eamon R. Carroll, O.Carm, S.T.D. (Boston:  Pauline Books and Media, 2000).

MMC                           Arthur Burton Calkins, "Il Mistero di Maria Corredentrice nel Magistero Pontificio" in Autori Vari, Maria Corredentrice:  Storia e Teologia I (Frigento [AV]:  Casa Mariana Editrice *Bibliotheca Corredemptionis B. V. Mariæ+ Studi e Ricerche 1, 1998) 141-220.

OR                               L'Osservatore Romano, daily Italian edition.

ORE                             L'Osservatore Romano, weekly edition in English. First number = cumulative edition number; second number = page.

Pii IX Acta                  Pii IX Pontificis Maximi Acta (Graz, Austria:  Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstelt, 1971).

Prob                            Gabriele M. Roschini, O.S.M., Problematica sulla Corredenzione (Roma:  Edizioni "Marianum", 1969).

Rosary                         The Rosary:  Papal Teachings, trans. Paul J. Oligny, O.F.M. (Boston:  St. Paul Editions, 1980).

Summa Aurea             Jean-Jacques Bourassé, Summa Aurea de Laudibus Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ Vols. 1-12 (Paris:  J.-P. Migne, 1862); Vol. 13 (Paris:  J.-P. Migne, 1866).

TPS                             The Pope Speaks, 1 (1954 )

Theotokos                   Michael O'Carroll, C.S.Sp., Theotokos:  A Theological Encyclopedia of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Wilmington:  Michael Glazier, Inc.; Dublin:  Dominican Publications, 1982).

Totus Tuus                  Arthur Burton Calkins, Totus Tuus:  John Paul II's Program of Marian Consecration and Entrustment (New Bedford, MA:  Academy of the Immaculate "Studies and Texts," No. 1, 1992).


     [1] Cf. Arthur Burton Calkins, "Pope John Paul II's Teaching on Marian Coredemption" in Foundations II:113-147.  Cf. also my study, "The Heart of Mary as Coredemptrix in the Magisterium of Pope John Paul II" in S. Tommaso Teologo:  Ricerche in occasione dei due centenari accademici (Vatican City:  Libreria Editrice Vaticana "Studi Tomistici #59," 1995) 320-335.

     [2] Inseg XVIII/2 (1995) 934-935 [ORE 1414:11; MCat 25-27].

     [3] Cf. Carol, "Our Lady's Coredemption," Mariology 2:382; Robichaud, "Mary, Dispensatrix of All Graces," Mariology 2:429.

     [4] Cf. Lk. 2:19, 51.

     [5] Armand J. Robichaud, S.M. supplies only one reference for this early period, that to Sixtus IV (1471-1484), in "Mary, Dispensatrix of All Graces," Mariology 2:429.

     [6] This is the standard practice of compilations such as Our Lady:  Papal Teachings, trans. Daughters of St. Paul (Boston:  St. Paul Editions, 1961); Claudia Carlen, I.H.M., The Papal Encyclicals, 1740-1980 (Ann Arbor:  The Pierian Press, 1990, c. 1981); ibid., Papal Pronouncements:  A Guide, 1740-1978 (Ann Arbor:  The Pierian Press, 1990) and Ugo Bellochi (ed.), Tutte le encicliche e i principali documenti pontifici emanati dal 1740 (Vatican City State:  Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1993 --) I --.

     [7] Cf. the classic work of E. Druwé, S.J., "La Médiation universelle de Marie," in Maria I in which the first part of the study (pp. 427-537) deals with the doctrine of Mary's collaboration in the work of redemption and the second part (pp. 538-568) treats Our Lady's mediation or distribution of grace.

     [8] Gabriele M. Roschini, O.S.M., Dizionario di Mariologia (Rome:  Editrice Studium, 1961) 323.

     [9] Cf. Giuseppe M. Besutti, O.S.M., Bibliografia Mariana 1958-1966 (Roma:  Edizioni *Marianum+, 1968) 194-205; Bibliografia Mariana 1967-1972 (1974) 164-167; Bibliografia Mariana 1973-1977 (1980) 155-158; Bibliografia Mariana 1978-1984 (1988) 256-259; Bibliografia Mariana 1985-1989 (1993) 328-333.

     [10] These distinctions are carefully delineated in Carol, "Our Lady's Coredemption," Mariology 2:380-381.

     [11] Cf. also Mark I. Miravalle, S.T.D., Mary:  Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate (Santa Barbara, CA:  Queenship Publishing, 1993) xvi.

     [12] Eamon R. Carroll, O.Carm., Understanding the Mother of Jesus (Wilmington, DE:  Michael Glazier, Inc., 1979) 93.

     [13] William G. Most, "Reparation to the Immaculate Heart," Cross and Crown 8 (1956) 139.

     [14] Miravalle xv.

     [15] On its origin, diffusion and the status quæstionis on its use up to 1969, cf. Prob 14-23.

     [16] Cf. Prob 75; Theotokos 54.  Pius' preference had to do with the theological disputes on this question which only came to a resolution at the Mariological Congress at Lourdes in 1958 shortly before his death.  On this matter, cf. Il "calvario" 13.

     [17] Cf. Juniper Carol's able handling of the objections in his masterful article, "Our Lady's Coredemption," Mariology 2:422-424.

     [18] Quo vero eiusdem Virginis Perdolentis cultus augeatur, et fidelium pietas gratique animi sensus magis magisque foveantur erga misericordem humani generis ConredemptricemAAS 1 (1908) 409; my trans. (emphasis my own); cf. Laurentin 23; Prob 21.

     [19] Sunt quos amor pius erga Beatissimam inter virgines sic delectat, ut Iesum nunquam commemorare queant, nisi glorioso comitante nomine Matris suæ, corredemptricis nostræ, beatæ Mariæ.  Laudabilis hæc consuetudo ad illam extenditur invocationem, seu christianam salutationem, circa quam Decretum supremæ H. S. Congregationis, die 27 martii 1913, datum est.  Equidem, pluribus in locis salutantur christicolæ his verbis;  Laudetur Iesus et Maria - Hodie et semperAAS 5 (1913) 364; my trans. (emphasis my own); cf. Laurentin 24; Prob 21.

     [20] Vergine benedetta, Madre di Dio, volgete benigna lo sguardo dal cielo, ove sedete regina, su questo misero peccatore, vostro servo.  Esso, benché consapevole della sua indegnità, a risarcimento delle offese a voi fatte da lingue empie e blasfeme, dall'intimo del suo cuore vi benedice e vi esalta come la più pura, la più bella e la più santa di tutte le creature.  Benedice il vostro santo nome, benedice le vostre sublimi prerogative di vera Madre di Dio, sempre Vergine, concepita senza macchia di peccato, di corredentrice del genere umanoAAS 6 (1914) 108; Joseph P. Christopher, Charles E. Spence and John F. Rowan (eds.), The Raccolta (Boston:  Benziger Brothers, Inc., 1957) #329, pp. 228-229 (it should be noted that the English translation is rendered in the first person plural whereas the Italian is in the first person singular; emphasis my own); cf. Laurentin 24-25; Prob 21.

     [21] Brunero Gherardini, La Madre:  Maria in una sintesi storico-teologica (Frigento [AV]:  Casa Mariana Editrice, 1989) 271 (my trans.).

     [22] Il Redentore non poteva, per necessità di cose, non associare la Madre Sua alla Sua opera, e per questo noi la invochiamo col titolo di Corredentrice.  Essa ci ha dato il Salvatore, l'ha allevato all'opera di redenzione fino sotto la croce, dividendo con Lui i dolori dell'agonia e della morte, in cui Gesù consumava la redenzione di tutti gli uomini.  Domenico Bertetto, S.D.B., ed., Discorsi di Pio XI 2:1013; OL #326 (emphasis my own); cf. Laurentin 26; Carol, "Our Lady's Coredemption," Mariology 2:384.

     [23] Il Papa diceva che essi venivano a celebrare presso il Vicaro di Cristo non solo il XIX centenario della Divina Redenzione, ma anche il XIX centenario di Maria, il centenario della Sua Corredenzione, della Sua universale MaternitàOR 25 marzo 1934, p. 1 (my trans.; emphasis my own).

     [24] Quei giovani dovevano seguire il pensiero ed il desiderio di Maria Santissima, che è nostra Madre e Corredentrice nostra:  dovevano sforzarsi ad essere, anch'essi, corredentori ed apostoli, secondo lo spirito dell'Azione Cattolica, ch'è appunto la cooperazione del laicato all'apostolato gerarchico della ChiesaOR 25 marzo 1934, p. 1 (my trans.; emphasis my own); cf. Prob 21; Laurentin 26-27.  Laurentin comments that coredeemer here is simply a synonym for apostle in the larger sense of the word!

     [25] O Mater pietatis et misericordiæ, quæ dulcissimo Filio tuo humani generis Redemptionem in ara crucis consummanti compatiens et Coredemptrix adstitisti ... conserva nobis, quæsumus, atque adauge in dies pretiosos Redemptionis et tuæ compassionis fructus.  OR 29-30 aprile 1935, p. 1; OL #334 (emphasis my own); cf. Laurentin 27; Carol, "Our Lady's Coredemption," Mariology 2:384.

     [26] Laurentin 27-28 (my trans.).

     [27] René Laurentin, A Short Treatise on the Virgin Mary trans. Charles Neumann, S.M. (Washington, NJ:  AMI Press, 1991) 242-243.  For an extensive analysis and refutation of this claim, cf. Alessandro Apollonio, F.I., "The Holy Spirit and Mary Coredemptrix" in Mary at the Foot of the Cross:  Acts of the International Symposium on Marian Coredemption (New Bedford, MA:  Academy of the Immaculate, 2001) 61-83 (esp. 77-80).

     [28] Cf.Michael O'Carroll, C.S.Sp., "Still Mediatress of All Graces?" Miles Immaculatæ 24 (1988) 121-122; Theotokos 351-352.

     [29] This apparition of Our Lady would be succeeded by a number of others in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries which would eventually be recognized by the Church as worthy of credence.  Two popular books which trace these events are Don Sharkey, The Woman Shall Conquer (Milwaukee:  The Bruce Publishing Company, 1952) and John Beevers, The Sun Her Mantle (Westminster, MD:  The Newman Press, 1954).

     [30] Cf. Theotokos 179-180.  Interestingly, Father O'Carroll acknowledges an impetus for the definition in the apparition of 1830, cf. Theotokos 182.

     [31] Cf. Totus Tuus 98-101.

     [32] Cf. Theotokos 55-56.

     [33] Cf. Totus Tuus 100.

     [34] Cf. Totus Tuus 104-105.

     [35] Instances of such study may be seen in the International Mariological Congresses held in Rome in 1950 and in Lourdes in 1958.  The second volume of the proceedings of the 1950 congress and the fourth volume of the 1958 congress are almost completely devoted to the theme of Marian coredemption and mediation.  Cf. De cooperatione B.V.Mariæ in acquisitione et distributione gratiarum Vol. II of Alma Socia Christi:  Acta Congressus Internationalis Mariologici-Mariani, Romæ Anno MCML celebrati (Rome:  Academia Mariana, 1952) and Cooperatio B.V.Mariæ et Ecclesiæ ad Christi redemptionem Vol IV of Maria et Ecclesia:  Acta Congressus Internationalis Mariologici-Mariani, in civitate Lourdes Anno MCMLVIII celebrati (Rome:  Academia Mariana, 1959).

     [36] Cf. Il "calvario" 7-8.

     [37] Cf. Theotokos 308.

     [38] Cf. Michael O'Carroll, C.S.Sp., "Mary's Mediation:  Vatican II and John Paul II" in Virgo Liber Verbi:  Miscellanea di studi in onore di P. Giuseppe M. Besutti, O.S.M. (Rome:  Edizioni *Marianum+, 1991) 543; Theotokos 352.  In the latter article Father O'Carroll gives the number of Fathers asking for a statement on Mary's mediation as 382.

     [39] G. Besutti, O.S.M., Lo schema mariano al Concilio Vaticano II (Rome:  Edizioni Marianum-Desclée, 1966) 17.

     [40] Cf. Il "calvario" 14.

     [41] Lo schema 28-29.

     [42] Omissæ sunt expressiones et vocabula quædam a Summis Pontificibus adhibita, quæ licet in se verissima, possent difficulius intelligi a fratribus separatis (in casu a protestantibus).  Inter alia vocabula adnumerari queunt sequentia:  *Corredemptrix humani generis+ [S. Pius X, Pius XI] ... Acta Synodalia Sacrosancti Concilii Oecumenici Vaticani Secundi, Vol., I, Pt. IV (Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, 1971) 99; my trans.  Cf. Gabriele M. Roschini, O.S.M., Maria Santissima nella Storia della Salvezza II (Isola del Liri:  Tipografia M. Pisani, 1969) 111-112.

     [43] Cf. Thomas Mary Sennott, O.S.B., "Mary Mediatrix of All Graces, Vatican II and Ecumenism," Miles Immaculatæ 24 (1988) 151-167; Theotokos 242-245.

     [44] Cf. Ralph M. Wiltgen, S.V.D., The Rhine Flows Into the Tiber:  A History of Vatican II (Rockford, IL:  Tan Books and Publishers, Inc., 1985, c. 1967) 90-95, 153-159.

     [45] Cf. my article "'Towards Another Marian Dogma?'  A Response to Father Angelo Amato," Marianum LIX (1997) 163-165.

     [46] Inseg XVIII/2 (1995) 1369-1370 [ORE 1421:13; MCat 51-52]; emphasis my own.

     [47] salvificam voluntatem Dei, pleno corde et nullo retardata peccato, complectens, semetipsam ut Domini ancillam personæ et operi Filii sui totaliter devovit, sub Ipso et cum Ipso, omnipotentis Dei gratia, mysterio redemptionis inserviensCDD 195; Flannery 416 (I have altered the word order of the translation found in Flannery).

     [48] Merito igitur SS. Patres Mariam non mere passive a Deo adhibitam, sed libera fide et oboedientia humanæ saluti cooperantem censent.  Ipsa enim, ut ait S. Irenæus, *oboediens et sibi et universo generi humano causa facta est salutis+.  Unde non pauci Patres antiqui in prædicatione sua cum eo libenter asserunt:  *Hevæ inoboedientiæ nodum solutionem accepisse per oboedientiam Mariæ; quod alligavit virgo Heva per incredulitatem hoc virginem Mariam solvisse per fidem+; et comparatione cum Heva instituta, Mariam *matrem viventium+ appellant, sæpiusque affirmant:  *mors per Hevam, vita per Mariam+.  CDD 195; Flannery 416.

     [49] Cf. Theotokos 139-141.

     [50] Ita etiam B. Virgo in peregrinatione fidei processit, suamque unionem cum Filio fideliter sustinuit usque ad crucem, ubi non sine divino consilio stetit (cf. Io. 19, 25), vehementer cum Unigenito suo condoluit et sacrificio Eius se materno animo sociavit, victimæ de se genitæ immolationi amanter consentiensCDD 197; Flannery 417.

     [51] Filioque suo in cruce morienti compatiens, operi Salvatoris singulari prorsus modo cooperata est, oboedientia, fide, spe et flagrante caritate, ad vitam animarum supernaturalem restaurandamCDD 199; Flannery 418.

     [52] Gherardini 281.

     [53] Cf. Roschini, Maria Santissima nella Storia della Salvezza II:113.

     [54] For the sake of consistency in usage I have regularly capitalized the word Coredemptrix and spelled it without a hyphen.  The translations in the weekly English edition of L'Osservatore Romano [ORE] have varied with regard to capitalization and have regularly rendered it Co-redemptrix.

     [55] Maria, pur concepita e nata senza macchia di peccato, ha partecipato in maniera mirabile alle sofferenze del suo divin Figlio, per essere Corredentrice dell'umanitàInseg V/3 (1982) 404; my trans.; emphasis my own.

     [56] Alla Madonna -- la Corredentrice -- San Carlo si rivolge con accenti singolarmente rivelatoriInseg VII/2 (1984) 1151 [ORE 860:1]; emphasis my own.

     [57] Crucificada espiritualmente con el Hijo crucificado, contemplaba con caridad heroica la muerte de su Dios, *consintiendo amorosamente en la inmolación de la Víctima que Ella misma había engendrado+. ...  Habiendo sufrido por la Iglesia, María mereció convertirse en la Madre de todos los discípulos de su Hijo, la Madre de su unidad.  Efectivamente, el papel corredentor de María no cesó con la glorificación del HijoInseg VIII/1 (1985) 318-319 [ORE 876:7]; emphasis my own.

     [58] Al desiderio del Redentore faccia generoso riscontro il desiderio nostro, auspice Maria, la Corredentrice, alla quale eleviamo con piena effusione la nostra preghieraInseg VIII/1 (1985) 889-890 [ORE 880:12]; emphasis my own.

     [59] Maria Santissima, Corredentrice del genere umano accanto al suo Figlio, vi dia sempre coraggio e fiducia!  Inseg XIII/1 (1990) 743:1; my trans.; emphasis my own.

     [60] La invocò come Immacolata, Addolorata e Corredentrice, esaltandone il ruolo singolare nella storia della salvezza e nella vita del popolo cristianoInseg XIV/2 (1991) 756 [ORE 1211:4]; emphasis my own.

     [61] Cf. Laurentin 15-16; Carol, "Our Lady's Coredemption," Mariology 2: 398-409.

     [62] Cf. Alessandro Apollonio, F.I., "I 'Punti Fermi' della Corredenzione Mariana" in Maria Corredentrice:  Storia e Teologia I (Frigento [AV]:  Casa Mariana Editrice *Bibliotheca Corredemptionis B. V. Mariæ+ Studi e Richerche 1, 1998) 23.

     [63] Inseg XX/1 (1997) 621-622 [ORE 1487:7; MCat 185-186]; emphasis my own.

     [64] A voi tutti provati dalla sofferenza, che mi ascoltate, c'è forse bisogno di ricordare che il vostro dolore vi unisce sempre più all'Agnello di Dio, il quale mediante la sua Passione ha *cancellato il peccato del mondo+?  E che quindi anche voi, associati a Lui nella passione, potete essere corredentori dell'umanità?  Voi conoscete queste luminose verità.  Non stancatevi mai di offrire le vostre pene per la Chiesa, perché tutti suoi figli siano coerenti con la loro fede, perseverenti nella preghiera e ferventi nella speranzaInseg IV/1 (1981) 896 [ORE 679:6]; emphasis my own.

     [65] Agli ammalati qui presenti e a quelli che sono nelle corsie degli ospedali, nelle case di cura e nelle famiglie dico:  non sentitevi mai soli, perché il Signore è con voi e non vi abbandona mai.  Siate coraggiosi e forti:  unite i vostri dolori e le vostre sofferenze a quelli del Crocifisso e diventerete corredentori dell'umanità, insieme al Cristo.  Inseg V/1 (1982) 91 [my trans.] emphasis my own.

     [66] *El candidato debe ser irreprochable+, amonesta nuevamente San Pablo.  La dirección espiritual personal debe cultivar en ellos un amor sin medida a Cristo y a su Madre, y unas ansias inmensas de asociarse íntimamente a la obra de la corredenciónInseg XI/2 (1988) 1216 [ORE 1041:4]; emphasis my own.

     [67] OR 4 Giugno 1997, p. 10 [ORE 1494:12].

     [68] OR 4 Giugno 1997, p. 10 [ORE 1497:10].

     [69] OR 4 Giugno 1997, p. 10-11 [ORE 1498:9-10].

     [70] OR 4 Giugno 1997, p. 10 [ORE 1497:10].

     [71] The original Italian speaks of documenti pontifici secondari, e quindi senza peso dottrinale.

     [72] Il "calvario" 30; my trans.

     [73] OR 14 dicembre 1995, p. 4 [ORE 1421:13].

     [74] Cf. #22, 38-41.

     [75] Cf. Totus Tuus 184-187.

     [76] Inseg XVIII/2 (1995) 934-937 [ORE 1414:11; MCat 25-28]; cf. footnote 2 above.

     [77] Cf. my treatment of this theme in "Mary as Coredemptrix, Mediatrix and Advocate in the Contemporary Roman Liturgy," Foundations I:55-57.

     [78] Cf. my treatment of this theme in MMC 179-187.

     [79] Sed enim hæc duo intimo necessitatis vinculo continentur inter se:  cruciatibus Iesu compati et Mariæ doloribus.  Nam ut Adam primus feminam habuit in prævaricatione sociam, sic alter in salutis nostræ reparatione participem voluit eam, quam de Cruce mulierem appellando, Evam alteram declaravit, idest Matrem ineffabiliter dolentem omnium hominum, quibus ipse ut vitam acquireret, moriebaturAAS 12 (1920) 224; Bro. Richard Zehnle, S.M. (trans.), "Marian Doctrine of Benedict XV," Marian Reprint 70:9; emphasis my own.

     [80] Non sono forse Gesù e Maria i due sublimi amori del popolo cristiano?  Non sono essi il novello Adamo e la novella Eva, che l'albero della croce riunisce nel dolore e nell'amore a riparare la colpa dei nostri progenitori dell'Eden...?  OR 22-23 aprile 1940, p. 1; Domenico Bertetto, S.D.B. (ed.), Il Magistero Mariano di Pio XII (Rome:  Edizioni Paoline, 1956) #43 [OL #359]; emphasis my own.

     [81] nova veluti EvaAAS 35 (1943) 247 [OL #383].

     [82] Maxime autem illud memorandum est, inde a sæculo II, Mariam Virginem a Sanctis Patribus veluti novam Hevam proponi novo Adæ, etsi subiectam, arctissime coniunctam in certamine illo adversus inferorum hostem, quod, quemadmodum in protoevangelio præsignificatur, ad plenissimam deventurum erat victoriam de peccato ac de morte, quæ semper in gentium Apostoli scriptis inter se copulanturAAS 42 (1950) 768 [OL #519]; emphasis my own.

     [83] Quibus ex rationibus huiusmodi argumentum eruitur:  si Maria, in spirituali procuranda salute, cum Iesu Christo, ipsius salutis principio, ex Dei placito sociata fuit, et quidem simili quodam modo, quo Heva fuit cum Adam, mortis principio, consociata, ita ut asseverari possit nostræ salutis opus, secundum quandam *recapitulationem+ peractum fuisse, in qua genus humanum, sicut per virginem morti adstrictum fuit, ita per virginem salvaturAAS 46 (1954) 634-635 [OL #705]; emphasis my own.

     [84] Arcto et indissolubili vinculo mysterio Incarnationis et Redemptionis coniuncta Beatissima Virgo Maria, Immaculata, expleto terrestris cursu, corpore et anima ad cælestem gloriam est assumpta et Filio suo, qui resurrexit a mortuis, similis reddita, sortem omnium iustorum in antecessum accepit; credimus Sanctissimam Dei Genetricem, novam Hevam, Matrem Ecclesiæ, cælitus nunc materno pergere circa Christi membra munere fungi, quo ad gignendam augendamque vitam divinam in singulis hominum redemptorum animis opem confertAAS 60 (1968) 438-439 [TPS 13:278]; emphasis my own.

     [85] Maria, nova Mulier, proxima Christo adstat, novo Homini, in cuius mysterio tantummodo hominis mysterium clarescitAAS 66 (1974) 166 [St. Paul Editions 49].  Interestingly, the Latin title of the 20th mass formulary in the Collection of Masses of the Blessed Virgin Mary [Collectio Missarum de Beata Maria Virgine] is also Sancta Maria, Mulier Nova, but it was rendered into English as "Holy Mary, the New Eve".

     [86] Cf. my article in Foundations I:52-54.

     [87] Theotokos 53.  Cf. entire article 53-55 and also Michael O'Carroll, C.S.Sp., "Socia:  the word and idea in regard to Mary," Ephemerides Mariologicæ 25 (1975) 337-357.

     [88] The cornerstone of this school is the so-called Franciscan thesis:  the absolute primacy of the Word Incarnate (Kingship of Christ) and his Blessed Mother's association uno eodemque decreto in that primacy.  The late Father Juniper B. Carol, O.F.M., in his last major work, put the Franciscan thesis succinctly thus:  that "Christ and His Blessed Mother were efficaciously predestined to existence with a logical priority to all others."  Why Jesus Christ?  Thomistic, Scotistic and Conciliatory Perspectives (Manassas, VA:  Trinity Communications, 1986) 4.

     [89] ad illius Virginis primordia transferre, quæ uno eodemque decreto cum Divinæ Sapientiæ incarnatione fuerant præstitutaPii IX Acta I:599 [OL #34].

     [90] It was reiterated by Pius XII in Munificentissimus Deus [AAS 42 (1950) 768 [OL #520] and by the Second Vatican Council which stated in LG #61 that Mary was predestined to be the Mother of God from eternity by that decree of divine Providence which determined the incarnation of the Word [Beata Virgo, ab æterno una cum divini Verbi incarnatione tamquam Mater Dei prædestinata, divinæ Providentiæ consilioCDD 199].  Paul VI also cited this text in Marialis Cultus #25 [AAS 66 (1974) 136; St. Paul Editions 23].  In Redemptoris Mater John Paul II says:  "In the mystery of Christ she is present even 'before the creation of the world,' as the one whom the Father 'has chosen' as Mother of his Son in the Incarnation. ...In an entirely special and exceptional way Mary is united to Christ, and similarly she is eternally loved in this 'beloved Son'." [In mysterio Christi ea est præsens iam *ante mundi constitutionem+, utpote quam Pater elegerit Matrem Filii sui in incarnatione. ...  Maria ratione omnino singulari et extraordinaria iuncta est Christo, et item in æternitate amatur in hoc *Filio dilecto+].  Inseg X/1 (1987) 687 [St. Paul Editions 14].

     [91] Quocirca sicut Christus Dei hominumque mediator, humana assumpta natura, delens quod adversus nos erat chirographum decreti, illud cruci triumphator affixit; sic Sanctissima Virgo, arctissimo et indissolubili vinculo cum Eo coniuncta, una cum Illo et per Illum, sempiternas contra venenosum serpentem inimicitias exercens, ac de ipso plenissime triumphans, illius caput immaculato pede contrivitPii IX Acta I:607 [OL #46]; emphasis my own.

     [92] Revera primævæ labis expers Virgo, adiecta Dei Mater, et hoc ipso servandi hominum generis consors facta, tanta apud Filium gratia et potestate valet, ut maiorem nec humana nec angelica natura assecuta umquam sit, aut assequi possitASS 16 (1883) 114 [Rosary #19]; emphasis my own.

     [93] On Mary as "Minister of Grace according to the magisterium", cf. Arthur Burton Calkins, "Mary as Coredemptrix, mediatrix and Advocate in the Contemporary Roman Liturgy" in Foundations I:70-82.

     [94] Nam, inde, divino consilio, sic illa coepit advigilare Ecclesiæ, sic nobis adesse favere mater, ut quæ sacramenti humanæ redemptionis patrandi administra fuerat eademque gratiæ ex illo in omne tempus derivandæ esse pariter administra, permissa ei pæne immensa potestateASS 28 (1895-1896) 130 [OL #169]; emphasis my own).  Cf. Prob 84-85.

     [95] Inter hæc ad magnam Dei Matrem eamdemque reparandi humani generis consortem ultro animus convolavit, ad quam trepidis in rebus confugere catholicis hominibus præcipuum semper ac solemne fuitASS 31 (1898-1899) 257 [OL #212]; emphasis my own.

     [96] His positis, ut ad propositum redeamus, cui Nos non iure recteque affirmasse videbimur, Mariam, quæ a Nazarethana domo ad Calvariæ locum assiduam se Iesu comitem dedit, eiusque arcana cordis ut nemo alius novit, ac thesauros promeritorum eius materno veluti iure administrat, maximo certissimoque esse adiumento ad Christi notitiam atque amorem?  ASS 36 (1903-1904) 454-455 [OL #235]; emphasis my own.

     [97] ASS 36 (1903-1904) 457 [OL #241].

     [98] Siquidem augusta Virgo, sine primæva labe concepta, ideo Christi Mater delecta est, ut redimendi generis humani consors efficeretur; ex quo sane tantam apud Filium gratiam potentiamque adepta est, ut maiorem nec humana nec angelica natura assequi unquam possitAAS 25 (1933) 80 [OL #319]; emphasis my own.

     [99] As Cardinal Secretary of State under Pius XI, he had used the term Coredemptrix in speaking of Our Lady (cf. OR 8 dicembre 1937, p. 3-4), but abstained from its use as Pope, preferring instead to speak of Mary as socia Christi.  Cf. Theotokos 54; Prob 22.

     [100] Ele o Filho Deus, reflecte sobre a celeste M e a glória, a majestade, o império de sua realeza; - porque associada, como M e e Ministra, ao Rei dos mártires na obra inefável da humana Redenç o, lhe é para sempre associada, com cum poder quasi imenso, na distribuiçao das graças que da Redenç o derivamAAS 38 (1946) 266 [OL #413]; emphasis my own.

     [101] AAS 42 (1950) 768 [OL #520]; for commentary cf. Carol, "Our Lady's Coredemption," Mariology 2:385-386.

     [102] Iamvero in hoc perficiendo redemptionis opere Beatissima Virgo Maria profecto fuit cum Christo intime consociataAAS 46 (1954) 634 [OL #704].

     [103] socia in divini Redemptoris operaAAS 46 (1954) 635 [OL #706].

     [104] Sicut Christus, eo quod nos redemit, speciali titulo Dominus est ac Rex noster, ita et Beata Virgo, propter singularem modum, quo ad nostram redemptionem concurritAAS 46 (1954) 634 [OL #704].

     [105] eiusque socia in Hevæ filiis revocandis ad divinæ gratiæ vitamAAS 48 (1956) 332.

     [106] )No mantiene todavía y siempre vivo el fuego de los misioneros en su apostolado la que en su vida terrena estuvo tan íntimamente asociada a la obra de Cristo y de sus discípulos?  AAS 52 (1960) 53 [my trans.]; cf. Prob 77.

     [107] Accanto a Gesù si trova la Madre sua, Regina Sanctorum omnium, suscitatrice di santità nella Chiesa di Dio, e suo primo fiore di grazia.  Intimamente associata alla Redenzione nei disegni eterni dell'Altissimo, la Madonna, come ha cantato Severiano di Gabala *è la madre della salvezza, la fonte della luce divenuta visibile+AAS 55 (1963) 10 [TPS 8:375]; emphasis my own.  Cf. Prob 77.

     [108] Cf. Totus Tuus 106-107.

     [109] Ecclesia enim ipsa non efficitur tantum ordine suo hierarchico, sacra liturgia, sacramentis, compage institutorum suorum, sed intima eius vis et proprietas, fons præcipuus efficacitatis, qua homines sanctificat, posita sunt in mystica eius coniunctione cum Christo; quam guidem coniunctionem censere non possumus abstractam ab Ea, quæ est Mater Verbi Incarnati, et quam Christus ipse sibi intime sociavit ad nostram salutem procurandamAAS 56 (1964) 1014 [TPS 10:138]; emphasis my own.

     [110] Mater Iesu Christi eique coniunctissima Socia.  AAS 59 (1967) 467 [St. Paul Editions (NCWC trans.) 3].

     [111] quæque Filii socia fuit in supernaturali animorum vita redintegrandaAAS 59 (1967) 473 [St. Paul Editions (NCWC trans.) 10].

     [112] socia RedemptorisAAS 66 (1974) 134 [St. Paul Editions 21].

     [113] eiusdem Salvatoris Mater et sociaAAS 66 (1974) 142 [St. Paul Editions 28].

     [114] asociada misteriosamente y para siempre a la obra de CristoAAS 66 (1974) 728 [MGMO 176].

     [115] La Chiesa cattolica, del resto, ha sempre creduto che lo Spirito Santo, intervenendo in modo personale, anche se in comunione inscindibile con le altre Persone della SS. Trinità, nell'opera dell'umana salvezza ha associato a se stesso l'umile vergine di NazarethAAS 67 (1975) 355-356 [MGMO 190].

     [116] Inseg VI/1 (1983) 1135-1136 [ORE 783:1]; emphasis my own.

     [117] Inseg XX/2 (1997) 565 [ORE 1513:11; MCat 246].

     [118] Inseg XIX/1 (1996) 116 [ORE 1426:11; MCat 62].

     [119] Inseg XIX/1 (1996) 1392 [ORE 1444:11; MCat 96].

     [120] Inseg XX/1 (1997) 750-751 [ORE 1489:11, MCat 189-190].

     [121] Inseg XX/1 (1997) 622 [ORE 1487:7; MCat 186].

     [122] Inseg XX/2 (1997) 35 [ORE 1500:7; MCat 208]; emphasis my own.

     [123] Cf. my treatment of this matter in Totus Tuus 162-168.

     [124] Inseg XX/2 (1997) 56 [ORE 1502:7; MCat 210]; emphasis my own.

     [125] For the magisterial background and foundation for this analogy, cf. Totus Tuus 85-86; 102-105.

     [126] On John the Geometer's contribution to Mariology, cf. Theotokos 203-204.

     [127] Inseg XVIII/2 (1995) 935 [ORE 1414:11; MCat 26]; except for titles, emphasis my own.

     [128] Theotokos 204.

     [129] Quum enim se Deo vel ancillam ad matris officium exhibuit vel totam cum Filio in templo devovit, utroque ex facto iam tum consors cum eo extitit laboriosæ pro humano genere expiationis:  ex quo etiam in acerbissimis Filii angoribus et cruciamentis, maxime animo condoluisse dubitandum non est.  Ceterum præsente ipsa et spectante, divinum illud sacrificium erat conficiendum, cui victimam de se generosa aluerat; quod in eisdem mysteriis postremum flebiliusque obversatur:  stabat iuxta Crucem Iesu Maria Mater eius, quæ tacta in nos caritate immensa ut susciperet filios, Filium ipsa suum ultro obtulit iustitiæ divinæ, cum eo commoriens corde, doloris gladio transfixa.   ASS 27 (1894-1895) 178 [OL #151]; emphasis my own.

     [130] Ad hæc, Deiparæ sanctissimæ non hoc tantum in laude ponendum est quod nascituro ex humanis membris Unigenito Deo carnis suæ materiam ministravit, qua nimirum saluti hominum compararetur hostia; verum etiam officium eiusdem hostiæ custodiendæ nutriendæque, atque adeo, stato tempore, sistendæ ad aram.  ASS 36 (1903-1904) 453 [Burke 55 (alt.)]; emphasis my own).

     [131] Enimvero tradunt communiter Ecclesiæ Doctores, B. Mariam Virginem, quæ a vita Iesu Christi publica veluti abesse visa est, si Ipsi mortem oppetenti et Cruci suffixo adfuit, non sine divino consilio adfuisse.  Scilicet ita cum Filio patiente et moriente passa est et pæne commortua, sic materna in Filium jura pro hominum salute abdicavit placandæque Dei justitiæ, quantum ad se pertinebat, Filium immolavit, ut dici merito queat, Ipsam cum Christo humanum genus redemisseAAS 10 (1918) 181-182 [OL #267]; emphasis my own.  For commentary on this text, cf. Prob 90-91; Carol, "Our Lady's Coredemption," Mariology 2:383-384.

     [132] ad illius Virginis primordia transferre, quæ uno eodemque decreto cum Divinæ Sapientiæ incarnatione fuerant præstitutaPii IX Acta I:599 [OL #34].

     [133] Hisce denique votis inceptisque Nostris præsens arrideat Virgo Dei Parens benignissima, quæ, cum Iesum nobis Redemptorem ediderit, aluerit, apud crucem hostiam obtulerit, par arcanam cum Christo coniunctionem eiusdemque gratiam omnino singularem, Reparatrix item exstitit pieque appellaturAAS 20 (1928) 178 [OL #287]; emphasis my own.

     [134] Pii IX Acta I:610 [OL #52].

     [135] Cf. Theotokos 336-337.

     [136] ASS 28 (1895-1896) 130-31 [OL #170].

     [137] Cf. Theotokos 125-126.

     [138] ASS 36 (1903-1904) 454 [OL #233].

     [139] Ipsa fuit, quæ vel propriæ, vel hereditariæ labis expers, arctissime semper cum Filio suo coniuncta, eundem in Golgotha, una cum maternorum iurium maternique amoris sui holocausto, nova veluti Eva, pro omnibus Adæ filiis, miserando eius lapsu foedatis, Æterno Patri obtulit; ita quidem, ut quæ corpore erat nostri Capitis mater, spiritu facta esset, ob novum etiam doloris gloriæque titulum, eius membrorum omnium materAAS 35 (1943) 247-248 [OL #383]; emphasis my own.  Pius XII quoted the first part of this text again in his Encyclical Letter Ad Cæli Reginam of 11 October 1954, AAS 46 (1954) 635 [OL #705].

     [140] Noi confidiamo che, in forza di quest'omaggio alla Vergine Santissima, gli Italiani tutti con rinnovato fervore venerino in Lei la Madre del Corpo Mistico, di cui l'Eucaristia è simbolo e centro vitale; imitino in Lei il modello più perfetto dell'unione con Gesù, nostro Capo; a Lei si uniscano nell'offerta della Vittima divina, e dalla sua materna intercessione implorino per la Chiesa i doni della unità, della pace, soprattutto una più rigogliosa e fedele fioritura di vocazioni sacerdotaliAAS 51 (1959) 713 [TPS 6:94]; emphasis my own.

     [141] Cf. Colman E. O'Neill, O.P., Meeting Christ in the Sacraments (Staten Island, N. Y.:  Alba House, 1991; rev. ed. Romanus Cessario, O.P.) 221-231.

     [142] On the distinction between the manner in which priests and the faithful offer the divine victim in the Mass, Cf. Pius XII's Encyclical Letter Mediator Dei of 20 November 1947, AAS 39 (1947) 553-555 [Pierre Veuillot (ed.), The Catholic Priesthood According to the Teaching of the Church:  Papal Documents from Pius X to Pius XII (1939-1954) (Dublin:  Gill and Son, 1957), Book I, Vol. 2, #229-232] and Meeting Christ in the Sacraments 209-214.

     [143] Ecclesia ipsa, maxime a medii ævii sæculis, in Virgine, Filium Ierusalem afferente, ut sisteret Domino (cf. Lc. 2, 22), voluntatem offerendi, seu ut aiunt, oblativam, intuita est, quæ suetum ritus intellectum excederet.  Cuius sane rei testimonio est illa S. Bernardi dulcis compellatio:  Offer Filium, Virgo Sacrata, et benedictum fructum ventris tuo Domino repræsenta.  Offer ad nostram omnium reconciliationem hostiam sanctam, Deo placentem.

  Hæc autem Matris et Filii coniunctio in opere Redemptionis summe enituit in Calvariæ monte, in quo Christus semetipsum obtulit immaculatum Deo (Hebr. 8, 14), atque Maria, prope Crucem stans (cf. Io. 19, 25), vehementer cum Unigenito suo condoluit et sacrificio Eius se materno animo sociavit, victimæ de se genitæ immolationi amanter consentiens, quam et ipsa æterno Patri obtulitAAS 66 (1974) 131-132 [St. Paul Editions 19].

     [144] Cf. footnote #2 above.

     [145] AAS 35 (1943) 247.

     [146] Nato dalla Vergine per essere oblazione pura, santa ed immacolata, Cristo compì sull'altare della Croce il sacrificio unico e perfetto, che ogni Messa, in modo incruento, rinnova e rende attuale.  A quell'unico sacrificio ebbe parte attiva Maria, la prima redenta, la Madre della Chiesa.  Stette accanto al Crocifisso, soffrendo profondamente col suo Unigenito; si associò con animo materno al suo sacrificio; acconsentì con amore alla sua immolazione:  lo offrì e si offrì al Padre.  Ogni Eucaristia è memoriale di quel Sacrificio  e della Pasqua che ridonò vita al mondo; ogni Messa ci pone in communione intima con lei, la Madre, il cui sacrificio *ritorna presente+, com *ritorna presente+ il sacrificio del figlio alle parole della Consacrazione del pane e del vino pronunciate dal sacerdoteInseg VI/1 (1983) 1447 [ORE 788:2]; emphasis my own.

     [147] Occorre soprattutto osservare che Maria è stata creata immacolata, al fine di poter meglio agire in nostro favore.  La pienezza di grazia le ha permesso di adempiere perfettamente la sua missione di collaborazione con l'opera di salvezza:  ha dato il massimo valore alla sua cooperazione al sacrificio.  Quando Maria ha presentato al Padre il Figlio inchiodato alla croce, la sua offerta dolorosa è stata interemente puraInseg VI/2 (1983) 1265 [ORE 813:1]; emphasis my own.

     [148] Carissimi Fratelli e Sorelle, sappiate anche voi offrire al Signore le gioie e le fatiche quotidiane, in communione con Cristo e per intercessione della Madre sua, qui venerata mentre presenta al Padre il Figlio immolato per la nostra salvezza.  [Inseg XVIII/1 (1995) 542 [ORE 1384:3]; emphasis my own.

     [149] *Iuxta crucem Iesu+ (Io. 19, 25), fit Maria illius deditionis particeps quam Filius facit sui ipsius:  Iesum offert, tradit illum, semel in sempiternum eum generat pro nobis.  Illud *fiat+ Annunciationis die prolatum plene maturescit Crucis die, cum Mariæ tempus accidit suscipiendi et pariendi veluti filium unumquemque hominem factum discipulum, in quem redimentem Filii amorem effundit:  *Cum vidisset ergo Iesus matrem et discipulum, quem diligebat, dicit matri:  "Mulier, ecce filius tuus"+ (Io. 19, 26).  AAS 87 (1995) 520 [ORE 1385:XIX]; emphasis my own.

     [150] Id officii debent profecto Christiani fideles beatæ Mariæ Virginis, tanquam parenti dulcissimæ filii, ut memoriam Dolorum, quos acerbissimos illa, stans præsertim juxta crucem Jesu, singulari et invicta fortitudine constantiaque pertulit, ac pro eorum salute æterno Patri obtulit, assiduo studio et benevolentia colantSumma Aurea 7:495 [OL #12]; emphasis my own.

     [151] Quum enim se Deo vel ancillam ad matris officium exhibuit vel totam cum Filio in templo devovit, utroque ex facto iam tum consors cum eo extitit laboriosæ pro humano genere expiationisASS 27 (1894-1895) 178 [OL #151]; emphasis my own.

     [152] Hinc Matris et Filii nunquam dissociata consuetudo vitæ et laborum, ut æquue in utrumque caderent Prophetæ verba:  Deficit in dolore vita mea, et anni mei in gemitibus.  Quum vero extremum Filii tempus advenit, stabat iuxta crucem Iesu Mater eius, non in immani tantum occupata spectaculo, sed plane gaudens quod Unigenitus suus pro salute generis humani offerretur, et tantum etiam compassa est, ut, si fieri potuisset, omnia tormenta quæ Filius pertulit, ipsa multo libentius sustineret.  Ex hac autem Mariam inter et Christum communione dolorum ac voluntatis, promeruit illa ut reparatrix perditi orbis dignissime fieret, atque ideo universorum munerum dispensatrix quæ nobis Iesus nece et sanguine comparavitASS 36 (1903-1904) 453-454 [OL #232-233].

     [153] Scilicet ita cum Filio patiente et moriente passa est et pæne commortua, sic materna in Filium jura pro hominum salute abdicavit placandæque Dei justitiæ, quantum ad se pertinebat, Filium immolavit, ut dici merito queat, Ipsam cum Christo humanum genus redemisseAAS 10 (1918) 182 [OL #267]; emphasis my own.

     [154] Benedict's terminology [non sine divino consilio] also appears in LG #58.

     [155] Sed enim hæc duo intimo necessitatis vinculo continentur inter se:  cruciatibus Iesu compati et Mariæ doloribusAAS 12 (1920) 224 [Bro. Richard Zehnle, S.M. (trans.), "Marian Doctrine of Benedict XV," Marian Reprint 70:9].

     [156] L'immagine della Vergine, della Madre di Dio avverte e caramente ammonisce che non deve passare giorno senza il ricordo della Madre celeste, che ci è stata affidata sotto la croce e che ha unito i suoi dolori e quelli del Redentore per la salvezza dei suoi figli.  Domenico Bertetto, S.D.B. (ed.), Discorsi di Pio XI 2:988 [my trans.]; emphasis my own.

     [157] Il Redentore non poteva, per necessità di cose, non associare la Madre Sua alla Sua opera, e per questo noi la invochiamo col titolo di Corredentrice.  Essa ci ha dato il Salvatore, l'ha allevato all'opera di redenzione fino sotto la croce, dividendo con Lui i dolori dell'agonia e della morte, in cui Gesù consumava la redenzione di tutti gli uomini.  Domenico Bertetto, S.D.B. (ed.), Discorsi di Pio XI 2:1013 [OL #326 (alt.)]; emphasis my own.

     [158] AAS 44 (1952) 429 [OL #568]; emphasis my own.

     [159] Cum enim ex Dei voluntate in humanæ Redemptionis peragendo opere Beatissima Virgo Maria cum Christo fuerit indivulse coniuncta, adeo ut ex Iesu Christi caritate eiusque cruciatibus cum amore doloribusque ipsius Matris intime consociatis sit nostra salus profecta ...  AAS 48 (1956) 352 [OL #778]; emphasis my own.

     [160] D-H #3926.

     [161] On Pius XII's treatment of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, cf. my commentary in Foundations I:67 and my article, "The Cultus of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary in the Papal Magisterium from Pius IX to Pius XII" Acta Congressus Mariologici-Mariani Internationalis in Sanctuario Mariano Kevelaer (Germania) Anno 1987 Celebrati II:  De Cultu Mariano Saeculis XIX et XX usque ad Concilium  Vaticanum II Studia Indolis Generalioris (Rome:  Pontificia Academia Mariana Internationalis, 1991) 381-392.

     [162] Ma questo gaudio è altresì un fiore purpureo di sacrificio:  sacrificio della Madre benedetta di Gesù, che pronunziando a suo tempo il *fiat+, accetta di partecipare alle sorti del Figlio, dalle privazioni di Betlem, alle rinunce della vita nascosta, al martirio del CalvarioDiscorsi, messaggi, Colloqui del Santo Padre Giovanni XXIII II:52 [TPS 6:176].

     [163] La Vergine Immacolata, che pronunziò il *fiat+ della perfetta conformità ai divini voleri e che, accettando di divenire la Madre del Verbo Incarnato, scelse le partecipatione volontaria ai patimenti del suo Figlio Redentore, guardi propizia alla schiera dolorosa e confidente di cotesti suoi figli, fatti degni di seguire Cristo, con Lei, sulla via regia della santa CroceInseg P IV (1966) 825 [my trans.]; emphasis my own.

     [164] in caritate ardentem, in proprio obeundo munere adeo fortem atque constantem, ut se ipsa devoveret, omnibus animi sensibus cum suo cohærens Filio, qui ideo in cruce mortuus est, ut homines nova vita donaretAAS 59 (1967) 470 [St. Paul Editions (NCWC trans.) 6]; emphasis my own.

     [165] Fu nuovamente lo Spirito Santo che sostenne l'animo della Madre di Gesù, presente ai piedi della sua Croce, ispirandole, come già nell'Annunziazione, il Fiat alla volontà del Padre celeste, che la voleva maternamente associata al sacrificio del Figlio per la redenzione del genere umanoAAS 67 (1975) 356 [MGMO 192]; emphasis my own.

     [166] Crucificada espiritualmente con el Hijo crucificado, contemplaba con caridad heroica la muerte de su Dios, *consintiendo amorosamente en la inmolación de la Víctima que Ella misma había engendrado+Inseg VIII/1 (1985) 318-319 [ORE 876:7]; emphasis my own.

     [167] Poi c'è il momento della crocifissione.  Certamente quando morì crocifisso Gesù la sua persona, il suo cuore, la sua maternità, tutta era *crocifissa+.  Scrivendo l'Enciclica *Redemptoris Mater+ ho paragonato questo momento della vita di Maria ad una notte oscura, più oscura di tutte le notti che hanno vissuto le anime mistiche durante tutta la storia della ChiesaInseg XIV/2 (1991) 530 [ORE 1207:4 (alt.)]; emphasis my own.

     [168] Vi precede in questo cammino la Vergine di Nazareth, la Donna santificata dalla Pasqua del Figlio di Dio, che ha offerto se stessa con Cristo per la redenzione dell'intera umanitàInseg XVI/1 (1993) 1136 [ORE 1292:7]; final emphasis my own.

     [169] On the theme of the united sacrifice of Jesus and Mary in the magisterium and in the liturgy, cf. my article, "Mary as Coredemptrix, Mediatrix and Advocate in the Contemporary Roman Liturgy," Foundations I:66-68.

     [170] Est imprimis solacii causa -- res sane Evangelio et historia comprobata -- quod iuxta Christum, loco primario et probe significato, sancta eius Mater semper adest ad dandum egregium testimonium, quoad tota vita sua de hoc singulari Evangelio doloris perhibet.  Permultæ et vehementes passiones confluxerunt in talem nexum et colligationem, ut non solum fidem eius inconcussam comprobarent, verum etiam ad redemptionem omnium conferrunt. ... Præterea, post ea quæ a Filio in vita abdita et publica sunt gesta -- quorum illa pro animo suo quam maxime tenero sine ulla dubitatione particeps fuit -- dolores Beatæ Mariæ Virginis in Calvariæ loco ad fastigium pervenerunt, cuius altitudo mente humana vix fingi quidem potest, sed certe arcana fuit et supernaturali ratione fecunda pro universali redemptione: communicatio prorsus peculiaris fuerunt mortis redemptricis FiliiInseg VII/1 (1984) 308-309 [St. Paul Editions 40-41]; except for "by her whole life", emphasis my own.

     [171] Christi passio bonum redemptionis mundi effecit, quod quidem in se ipso inexhaustum est et infinitum neque ei quidquam ab ullo homine addi potestInseg VII/1 (1984) 307 [St. Paul Editions 37-38].

     [172] Inseg XX/1 (1997) 621 [ORE 1487:7; MCat 185].

     [173] Inseg XX/1 (1997) 572 [ORE 1486:11; MCat 183]; emphasis my own.

     [174] Inseg XX/2 (1997) 297 [ORE 1508:7; MCat 232].

     [175] OR 24 febbraio 2000, p. 7 [ORE 1632:11]; emphasis my own.

     [176] Cf. my treatment of the sacrifice of Mary's maternal Heart in MMC 213-218; Foundations II 140-144.  For a more detailed study of the Heart of Mary as a symbol of her collaboration in the work of our salvation, cf. my article, "The Heart of Mary as Coredemptrix in the Magisterium of Pope John Paul II" in S. Tommaso Teologo:  Ricerche in occasione dei due centenari accademici (Città del Vaticano:  Libreria Editrice Vaticana *Studi Tomistici #59+, 1995) 320-335; An Italian trans. "Il Cuore di Maria Corredentrice nel Magistero di papa Giovanni Paolo II" was published in Corredemptrix:  Annali Mariani 1996 del Santuario dell'Addolorata (Castelpetroso, Isernia, 1997) 97-114.

     [177] Inseg XIX/1 (1996) 1391 [ORE 1444:11; MCat 95].

     [178] On the concept of Mary as associate or partner in the work of salvation according to the liturgy, cf. my study in Foundations I 52-54.  On this same concept according to the magisterium, cf. my studies in MMC 167-179 and in Foundations II 126-127.

     [179] Roman Missal, Preface of the Sacred Heart of Jesus.

     [180] Inseg XIX/1 (1996) 1392 [ORE 1444:11; MCat 96]; emphasis my own.

     [181] Inseg XX/2 (1997) 331 [ORE 1509:11; MCat 234]; emphasis my own.

     [182] Flannery 379.  I have added the numbers.

     [183] Cf. Totus Tuus 266-269.

     [184] The Italian speaks of documenti pontifici secondari, e quindi senza peso dottrinale.

     [185] Ignazio M. Calabuig, O.S.M. e il Comitato di redazione della rivista Marianum, "Riflessione sulla richiesta della definizione dogmatica di *Maria corredentrice, mediatrice, avvocata+," Marianum LXI (1999) 157 n. 50.

     [186] Inseg XIX/1 (1996) 1344 [ORE 1446:6].

     [187] Inseg XVIII/2 (1995) 54 [ORE 1399:3].

     [188] With apologies to Father Aidan Nichols, O.P. I would put his proposal of "The Redemptive Collaboratrix" among these.  Cf. his article "Von Balthasar and the Coredemption" in Mary at the Foot of the Cross:  Acts of the International Symposium on Marian Coredemption (New Bedford, MA:  Academy of the Immaculate, 2001) 314.

     [189] Cf. Mark I. Miravalle, S.T.D., Mary:  Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate (Santa Barbara, CA:  Queenship Publishing, 1993) xv; MMC 147-148; Foundations II 117-118.

The above paper first appeared in Mark Miravalle (ed.), Mary Co-redemptrix: Doctrinal Issues Today (Goleta, CA: Queenship Publishing, 2002)     


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