Our Lady’s Presence in the Mass in the Teaching of
Pope John Paul II
By Msgr. Arthur Burton Calkins
VI. Mary’s Involvement in the Offering of the Sacrifice of the Mass
Now let us listen to the final part of that memorable Angelus address of Corpus Christi 1983:
Every Eucharist is a memorial of that Sacrifice and that Passover that restored life to the world; every Mass puts us in intimate communion with her, the Mother, whose sacrifice “becomes present” just as the Sacrifice of her Son “becomes present” at the words of consecration of the bread and wine pronounced by the priest.
It is precisely here in the third part of this brief but theologically dense address that John Paul II broke new ground in applying the received teaching on Marian coredemption to the holy Sacrifice of the Mass. I have found no similar statement in the magisterium of his predecessors. His thesis is precisely that Mary’s sacrifice becomes present in the Mass just as her Son’s sacrifice becomes present. This is true above all precisely because Jesus is Mary’s sacrifice; she offered him in sacrifice on Calvary to the Father for us. Secondly, this is also true because Mary’s sacrifice of herself is indissolubly united to the sacrifice of Jesus. Certainly Mary’s sacrifice is always ancillary, subordinate to and dependent on his, but at the same time it is also inextricably united to his sacrifice of himself. Hence the Pope used his Message of 15 August 1996 to the 19th International Marian Congress, held in Cz stochowa, Poland from 24 to 26 August 1996, in order to underscore Mary’s presence in the sacrifice of Calvary and her presence in the sacrifice of the Mass:
Every Holy Mass makes present in an unbloody manner that unique and perfect sacrifice, offered by Christ on the tree of the Cross, in which Mary participated, joined in spirit with her suffering Son, lovingly consenting to his sacrifice and offering her own sorrow to the Father (cf. Lumen Gentium, n. 58). Therefore when we celebrate the Eucharist, the memorial of Christ’s passover, the memory of his Mother’s suffering is also made alive and present, this Mother who, as an unsurpassable model, teaches the faithful to unite themselves more intimately to the sacrifice of her Son, the one Redeemer. Through spiritual communion with the sorrowful Mother of God, believers share in a special way in the paschal mystery and are opened to this extraordinary action of the Holy Spirit which produces a supernatural joy because of communion with the glorious Christ, on the example of the joy granted to Mary in the glory of heaven, as the first person to share in the fruits of the Redemption.
Both of these marvelous texts speak clearly of Mary’s presence in the celebration of the Sacrifice of the Mass, but the second goes even farther in presenting her “as an unsurpassable model” [come insuperabile modello] for the faithful in uniting “themselves more intimately to the sacrifice of her Son” [ad unirsi più intimamente al sacrificio del Figlio]. Even more, in this second text the Pope passes from speaking of Our Lady’s role as Coredemptrix to her role as Mediatrix i.e., her function in “opening up the faithful” to the extraordinary action of the Holy Spirit in producing supernatural joy in them because of their communion with the glorious Christ – and this “on the example of the joy granted to Mary in the glory of heaven, as the first person to share in the fruits of the Redemption”. I leave it to others to analyze the type of Mary’s mediatorial causality which the Pope is describing here. (There is no little irony in the fact that the second of these magnificent texts was intended for a gathering of mariologists in Cz stochowa some of whose leading participants drew up a document highly critical of the traditional doctrine on Marian coredemption and strongly opposed to the definition of Mary as Coredemptrix, Mediatrix and Advocate! One wonders if this could have had anything to do with the omission of this highly significant text from the Insegnamenti.)
These two extraordinary texts are not the only instances of Pope John Paul II’s teaching on Mary’s presence in the Mass. He showed remarkable consistency on this matter to the point that I believe it can be recognized as part of his ordinary magisterium on the basis of the frequency with which he proposed this doctrine [ex frequenti propositione eiusdem doctrinæ]. I offer these further enlightening confirmations of this teaching.
On 25 August 2001 he introduced the Mass he was celebrating for Polish pilgrims in this way:
“When the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son, born of a woman ...” (Gal. 4:4). This saving mystery, in which God has assigned to the woman Mary of Nazareth, a role that cannot be replaced, is continually made present in the Eucharist. When we celebrate the Holy Mass, the Mother of the Son of God is in our midst and introduces us to the mystery of His redemptive sacrifice. Thus, she is the mediatrix of all the grace flowing from this sacrifice to the Church and to all the faithful.
We notice here not only the accentuation on Mary’s presence in the Mass but also, as was the case in the Message to the Marian Congress of 15 August 1996, the further emphasis on Mary as “the mediatrix of all the grace flowing from this sacrifice to the Church and to all the faithful”. Although in itself a brief statement which Marian minimalists will readily dismiss as “marginal and therefore devoid of doctrinal weight”, I submit that this statement, along with that of 15 August 1996, is of great importance as verifying and continuing in the line of the magisterium of Leo XIII and St. Pius X on Mary as Mediatrix of all graces and it further takes a specific position with regard to Our Lady’s mediation of the grace of the sacraments. Again on 23 November 2001 in his address to the Plenary Session of the Congregation for the Clergy the Pope said:
I recommend to each one to turn, in the daily exercise of pastoral care, to the maternal help of the Blessed Virgin Mary, seeking to live in profound communion with Her. In the ministerial priesthood, as I wrote in the Letter to Priests, on the occasion of Holy Thursday 1979, “there is the wonderful and penetrating dimension of nearness to the Mother of Christ” (n. 11). When we celebrate Holy Mass, dear Brother priests, the Mother of the Redeemer is beside us. She introduces us into the mystery of the redemptive offering of her divine Son. “Ad Jesum per Mariam”: may this be our daily programme of spiritual and pastoral life!
On this occasion the Pope was speaking to priests in a manner which seems reminiscent of Padre Pio. So convinced is he that one wonders if he was speaking from personal experience. Yet again he speaks of Our Lady’s mediatorial role: it is she who “introduces us into the mystery of the redemptive offering of her divine Son” [che ci introduce nel mistero dell’offerta redentrice del suo divino Figlio].
Certainly the most solemn of his statements about Mary’s presence in the celebration of the Eucharist occurs in §57 of Ecclesia de Eucharistia:
“Do this in remembrance of me” (Lk. 22:19). In the “memorial” of Calvary all that Christ accomplished by his passion and his death is present. Consequently all that Christ did with regard to his Mother for our sake is also present. To her he gave the beloved disciple and, in him, each of us: “Behold, your Son!”. To each of us he also says: “Behold your mother!” (cf. Jn. 19: 26-27).
Experiencing the memorial of Christ’s death in the Eucharist also means continually receiving this gift. It means accepting – like John – the one who is given to us anew as our Mother. It also means taking on a commitment to be conformed to Christ, putting ourselves at the school of his Mother and allowing her to accompany us. Mary is present, with the Church and as the Mother of the Church, at each of our celebrations of the Eucharist. If the Church and the Eucharist are inseparably united, the same ought to be said of Mary and the Eucharist. This is one reason why, since ancient times, the commemoration of Mary has always been part of the Eucharistic celebrations of the Churches of East and West [In Eucharistia vivere memoriam mortis Christi requirit etiam ut hoc donum continenter excipiatur. Significat sumere nobiscum – exemplum Ioannis secuti – illam quæ identidem uti Mater nobic datur. Significat eodem tempore munus exsequi se Christo conformandi, sive scholam Matris frequentando sive comitatum eius acceptando. Maria præsents est, cum Ecclesia et uti Mater Ecclesiæ, in singulis nostris celebrationibus eucharisticis. Sicut Ecclesia et Eucharistia indivisibile contituunt binomium, ita quoque dicendum est de binomio Maria et Eucharistia. Idcirco commemoratio quoque Mariæ in eucharistica Celebratione, ab antique inde ætate, unanimis est in Ecclesiis tam Orientalibus quem Occidentalibus].
With regard to this passage, it may be said, once again, without any exaggeration that John Paul II broke new ground in making explicit the link between Mary and the Mass. Clearly there is no Pope who ever commented more frequently or with greater profundity on the text of John 19:25-27. He found in it the basis for Mary’s kenosis, Marian coredemption, Mary’s spiritual maternity, her motherhood of the Church, Marian devotion, Marian consecration and entrustment. Now situating this entrusting of John to Mary and Mary to John within the Eucharistic context of the sacrifice of Jesus anticipated on the first Holy Thursday and consummated on the first Good Friday, he teaches that
In the “memorial” of Calvary all that Christ accomplished by his passion and his death is present. Consequently all that Christ did with regard to his Mother for our sake is also present. To her he gave the beloved disciple and, in him, each of us: “Behold, your Son!”. To each of us he also says: “Behold your mother!” (cf. Jn. 19: 26-27).
Experiencing the memorial of Christ’s death in the Eucharist also means continually receiving this gift. [In «memoria» Calvariæ præsens est id quod in passione et in morte sua Christus explevit. Quare id non deest quod Christus explevit etiam erga Matrem pro nobis. Ipsi enim tradens discipulum prædilectum, et in eo tradi unemquemque nostrum: «Ecce filius tuus!». Pariter dicit quoque unicuique nostrum: «Ecce mater tua!».
In Eucharistia vivere memoriam mortis Christi requirit etiam ut hoc donum continenter excipiatur].
According to Pope John Paul II, then, our living the total experience of the Eucharistic memorial of Christ’s death effectively requires that we accept Mary as Mother and welcome her into our lives. From this datum he underscores once again that “Mary is present, with the Church and as the Mother of the Church, at each of our celebrations of the Eucharist” [Maria præsens est, cum Ecclesia et uti Mater Ecclesiæ, in singulis nostris celebrationibus eucharisticis].
Finally, as a way of summarizing the Pope’s teaching on this matter, we have this brief statement in §14 of the Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Gregis of 16 October 2003:
The Bishop’s solid Marian devotion will be constantly related to the liturgy, where the Blessed Virgin is particularly present in the celebration of the mysteries of salvation and serves as a model of docility and prayer, of spiritual oblation and motherhood for the whole Church [Solida marialis Episcopi devotio continenter ad sacram Liturgiam referetur, ubi in salutis mysteriis celebrandis peculiarem praesentiam obtinet Virgo ipsaque universae Ecclesiae precandi, audiendi, offerendi itemque spiritalis maternitatis eximium est exemplar].
VII. Mary as Exemplar for the Participation of the Faithful at Mass
As we have just seen, the Holy Father’s insistence on Mary’s presence in the Mass, her union with the offering of Jesus to the Father in sacrifice, is the perfect model for all of the faithful at Mass. Here is how he put it in his general audience address of 10 September 1997:
Mary was a witness to the historical unfolding of the saving events, which culminated in the Redeemer’s Death and Resurrection, and she kept “all these things, pondering them in her heart” (Lk. 2:19).
She was not merely present at the individual events, but sought to grasp their deep meaning, adhering with all her soul to what was being mysteriously accomplished in them.
Mary appears therefore as the supreme model of personal participation in the divine mysteries. She guides the Church in meditating on the mystery celebrated and in participating in the saving event, by encouraging the faithful to desire an intimate, personal relationship with Christ in order to cooperate with the gift of their own life in the salvation of all [Maria appare, pertanto, come supremo modello di partecipazione personale ai divini misteri. Ella guida la Chiesa nella meditazione del mistero celebrato e nella partecipazione all’evento di salvezza, promuovendo nei fedeli il desiderio di un intimo coinvolgimento personale con Chrsito per cooperare con il dono della propria vita alla salvezza universale]. ...
The Blessed Virgin also represents the Church’s model for generously participating in sacrifice.
In presenting Jesus in the temple and, especially, at the foot of the Cross, Mary completes the gift of herself which associates her as Mother with the suffering and trials of her Son. Thus in daily life as in the Eucharistic celebration, the “Virgin presenting offerings” (Marialis cultus, n. 20) encourages Christians to “offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ” (1 Pt. 2:5) [La vergine costituisce, altresì, per la Chiesa il modello nella partecipazione generosa al sacrificio.
Nella presentazione di Gesù al tempio e, soprattutto, ai piedi della croce, Maria compie il dono di sé che l’associa quale Madre alla sofferenza ed alle prove del Figlio. Così nella vita quotidiana come nella Celebrazione eucharistica la «Vergine offerente» incoraggia i cristiani ad «offrire sacrifici spirtuali graditi a Dio, per mezzo di Gesù Cristo».].
Here the Holy Father indicates Mary’s exemplary role in two ways: she serves as guide for “the Church in meditating on the mystery celebrated and in participating in the saving event” and serves as “the Church’s model for generously participating in sacrifice”. In these two points, I believe, the Holy Father provided the most authentic key to interpreting the teaching in §41 of Sacrosanctum Concilium on the active participation [actuosa participatio] of the faithful in the Eucharist and in §48 of the same dogmatic constitution on the offering of themselves in union with the immaculate victim offered through the hands of the priest [immaculatam hostiam, non tantum per sacerdotis manus, sed etiam una cum ipso offerentes, seipsos offerre discant].
In §86 of his Apostolic Letter Dies Domini of 31 May 1998 he further illustrates Mary’s role:
Without in any way detracting from the centrality of Christ and his Spirit, Mary is always present in the Church’s Sunday. It is the mystery of Christ itself which demands this: indeed, how could she who is Mater Domini and Mater Ecclesiae fail to be uniquely present on the day which is both dies Domini and dies Ecclesiae?
As they listen to the word proclaimed in the Sunday assembly, the faithful look to the Virgin Mary, learning from her to keep it and ponder it in their hearts (cf. Lk. 2:19). With Mary, they learn to stand at the foot of the Cross, offering to the Father the sacrifice of Christ and joining to it the offering of their own lives. With Mary, they experience the joy of the Resurrection, making their own the words of the Magnificat which extol the inexhaustible gift of divine mercy in the inexorable flow of time: “His mercy is from age to age upon those who fear him” (Lk. 1:50). From Sunday to Sunday, the pilgrim people follow in the footsteps of Mary, and her maternal intercession gives special power and fervour to the prayer which rises from the Church to the Most Holy Trinity [Nil sane ipsa præcipuis Christi eiusque Spiritus officiis detrahens adest in omni Dominica Ecclesiæ. Hoc ipsum Christi mysterium deposcit: quomodo enim Illa, quæ Mater Domini est atque Mater Ecclesiæ, non peculiari titulo adesse posset eo ipso die qui simul et dies Domini est et dies Eclesiæ?
Fideles qui in dominicali congressione proclamatum audiunt Verbum Virginem Mariam respiciunt at ea discentes illud idem custodire et suo ponderare in corde. Cum Maria sub cruce consistere discunt, ut Patri Christi sacrificium offerant suæquæ vitæ donum cum eo consocient. Gaudium resurrectionis cum Maria experiuntur, suas faciunt eius voces Magnificat quæ inexhaustum divinæ misericordiæ donum decantant perpetuo in temporis fluxo itinere: «Et miseridocrida eius in progenies et progenies timentibus eum». Ex Dominica in dominicam diem Mariæ vestigia peregrinans premit populus, atque ius maternæ preces vehementem insigniter et efficacem reddunt precationem illam, quam ad sanctissimam Trinitatem tollit Ecclesia].
I would underscore four points here. (1) With regard to the Liturgy of the Word, Mary is presented as the exemplar, the peerless “ponderer of the Word in her heart”. (2) With regard to the Liturgy of the Eucharist, Mary teaches the faithful how “to stand at the foot of the Cross, offering to the Father the sacrifice of Christ and joining to it the offering of their own lives”. We have already seen this brought out in the previous citation. (3) The third point is the linking of the sacrifice of the Cross and the Resurrection as the “Paschal Mystery”. Mary’s experience of the joy of the Resurrection makes her the model singer of the Magnificat, in thanksgiving for the “great things” which the Lord accomplishes in us through the Eucharist, a thought which the Pope would develop further in §58 of Ecclesia de Eucharistia. (4) The final point is that the Holy Father links Mary’s presence in the Eucharist with her mediatorial role of intercession as Advocate on behalf of her children: “her maternal intercession gives special power and fervour to the prayer which rises from the Church to the Most Holy Trinity” [ius maternæ preces vehementem insigniter et efficacem reddunt precationem illam, quam ad sanctissimam Trinitatem tollit Ecclesia].
VIII. Summary of John Paul II’s Teaching on Mary and the Eucharist
Let us review some of the most salient features of the teaching of Pope John Paul II on the bond between the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Eucharist.
1. In Redemptoris Mater §44 he stated that Mary’s “motherhood is particularly noted and experienced by the Christian people at the Sacred Banquet”. In that same paragraph he declared that “Mary guides the faithful to the Eucharist”.
2. The body and blood of Christ had its only human source in the body and blood of Mary: the flesh of Christ in the Eucharist is sacramentally the flesh he assumed from the Virgin Mary. The Eucharist, then, while commemorating the passion and resurrection, is also in continuity with the incarnation and thus evokes Mary’s presence.
3. To use the Pope’s own words: “At the root of the Eucharist, therefore, there is the virginal and maternal life of Mary. As fragrant Bread, the Eucharist has the taste and aroma of the Virgin Mother.”
4. Jesus was born of the Virgin to be a pure oblation, pleasing to the Father.
5. On Calvary Mary offered Jesus to the Father and she offered herself to the Father in union with him. This is to state the essence of what has come to be referred to as the doctrine of Marian coredemption.
6. On Calvary Mary’s suffering reached an intensity which can hardly be imagined from a human perspective but which was mysteriously and supernaturally fruitful for the Redemption of the world.
7. Mary’s sacrifice “becomes present” just as the Sacrifice of her Son “becomes present” at the words of consecration of the bread and wine pronounced by the priest. Here it must be specified that one is not speaking of the transubstantiation which takes place in the sacred species, but of a mystical presence of Our Lady which accompanies the sacrifice of Christ.
8. Mary introduces us into the mystery of the redemptive offering of her divine Son.
9. Mary is “in our midst”, “beside us”, “particularly present” in our celebration of the Eucharist. The particular mode of this presence remains to be further specified.
10. Nonetheless, Mary’s presence in the celebration of the Eucharist is active, as it was on Calvary. But in the Mass not only does she renew her sacrifice, but she also is the mediatrix of all the grace flowing from the sacrifice of the Mass to the Church and to all the faithful.
11. Experiencing the memorial of Christ’s death in the Eucharist also means continually receiving the gift of his Mother, of being entrusted to her anew.
12. Mary serves as guide for the Church in meditating on the mystery celebrated and in participating in the saving event and serves as the Church’s model for generously participating in sacrifice and, in a particular way, for offering to the Father the sacrifice of Christ and joining to it the offering of their own lives.
13. Our Lady’s maternal intercession gives special power and fervour to the prayer which rises from the Church to the Most Holy Trinity.
IX. By Way of Conclusion
I believe that Pope John Paul II has truly illuminated the bond between Mary and the Eucharist, bringing the magisterium to the highest level of insight that it has thus far attained on this matter. His teaching on Mary’s presence in the Mass as one who offers the sacrifice in union with Christ, while clearly grounded in Scripture and Tradition, has broken new ground in the magisterium. He has also broken new ground in teaching about Mary’s mediation of the graces of the Mass and of the sacraments. Up to now one could only find such assertions in the testimony of the mystics and in the reflection of certain theologians whose work is considered passé by many. He further elucidated Mary’s role as guide for the faithful to the Mystery of the Eucharist and in their participation in the Mass.
It seems that up to now very few are aware of this marvelous Eucharistic-Marian patrimony of Pope John Paul II. Beyond a few generic references to Mary as “the Woman of the Eucharist”, it seems to be almost totally unknown. What I have presented here is only an initial exposition of this extraordinarily rich doctrine which needs to be analyzed in depth by theologians and studied by the faithful. Even more, tt needs to be appropriated and lived. We may be sure that it will be contested in certain circles, but the darkness will not overcome it (cf. Jn. 1:5) because it is a teaching which is especially needed in our day. Thus it was that the Lord providentially arranged that John Paul II should give voice to it. This doctrine is above all a testimony to Our Lady’s role in the work of our redemption as Coredemptrix and Mediatrix of all graces, a function which she continues to fulfill in an altogether unique way in the Eucharistic Mystery, as our late Holy Father had the grace to underscore with such consistency and at the same time constantly unveiling new facets of the relationship between Mary and the Eucharist. Our Lady’s role in the celebration of the Eucharist and in our lives needs to be proclaimed, celebrated and lived. The more that we do so, the more that the entire Church does so, the more the entire world will be transformed by the Eucharist Mystery.
Laus Cordibus Jesu et Mariæ
 Cf. Giuseppe Crocetti, S.S.S., Maria e l’Eucaristia nella Chiesa (Edizioni Dehoniane Bologna, 2001)149-160 and the many excellent articles on this theme in Ermanno M. Toniolo, O.S.M. (ed.), Maria e l’Eucaristia (Rome: Centro di Cultura Mariana «Madre della Chiesa», 2000) and Liturgie dell’Oriente Cristiano a Roma nell’Anno Mariano (1987-88): Testi e Studi (Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1990).
 The Pope cited this particular text in §78 of his Apostolic Letter Dies Domini of 31 May 1998 [Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II (Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana) hereafter cited as Inseg XXI/1 (1998) 1184; Osservatore Romano (weekly edition in English; First number = cumulative edition number; second number = page) hereafter cited as ORE 1549:X].
 Sadly, by refusing to translate in primis the I.C.E.L. translation does not do full justice to Our Lady’s position, even if she still retains the first place chronologically.
 Inseg II/1 (1979) 607-608 [U.S.C.C. Edition 97, 98].
 For an excellent introduction to Marian mediation in John Paul II, cf. Manfred Hauke, “La Mediazione materna di Maria secondo papa Giovanni Paolo II,” Maria Corredentrice: Storia e Teologia VII (Frigento: Casa Mariana Editrice, 2005) 35-91.
 Inseg III/2 (1980) 1510-1511 [St. Paul Edition 30-31].
 Cf. Arthur Burton Calkins, “The Heart of Mary as Coredemptrix in the Magisterium of Pope John Paul II” in S. Tommaso Teologo: Ricerche in occasione dei due centenari accademici (Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana “Studi Tomistici” #59, 1995) 320-335.
 On the Our Lady’s knowledge of the price [pretium] of the redemption, cf. St. Bonaventure, Collationes de septem donis Spiritus Sancti, 6 in Doctoris seraphici S. Bonaventuræ … Opera Omnia, vol 5, ed PP. Collegii a S. Bonaventura (Ad Claras Aquas [Quaracchi]: Ex Typographia Collegii S. Bonaventuræ, 1891) p. 486.
 Cf. St. Pius X’s Encyclical Ad Diem Illum of 2 February 1904 in which he speaks of how Mary merited [«promeruit»] to become the reparatrix of the lost world and how she merits [promeret] de congruo what Christ merits de condigno [Acta Sanctæ Sedis hereafter cited as AAS 36 (1903-1904) 453-454; Our Lady: Papal Teachings, trans. Daughters of St. Paul (Boston: St. Paul Editions, 1961) hereafter cited as OL #233-234]. For a discussion of this terminology cf. Juniper B. Carol, O.F.M., “Our Lady’s Coredemption,” in Juniper B. Carol, O.F.M. (ed.), Mariology, 2 (Milwaukee: Bruce, 1957) 383, 409-411.
 This seems to parallel without the use of more technical language St. Pius X’s conclusion about Mary as princeps largiendarum gratiarum ministra in Ad Diem Illum [ASS 36 (1903-1904) 454; OL #234].
 Inseg X/1 (1987) 734 [St. Paul Edition 63].
 Inseg XI/2 (1988) 1731 [ORE 1047:11-12].
 Cf. Arthur Burton Calkins, Totus Tuus; John Paul II’s Program of Marian Consecration and Entrustment (New Bedford, MA: Academy of the Immaculate “Studies and Texts”, No. 1, 1992) hereafter cited as Totus Tuus 76-79, 248-254; “The Hearts of Jesus and Mary in the Magisterium of Pope John Paul II,” Acta Congressus Mariologici-Mariani Internationalis in Civitate Onubensi (Huelva - Hispania) Anno 1992 Celebrati IV: De Cultu Mariano Saeculo XX a Concilio Vaticano II usque ad Nostros Dies (Vatican City State: Pontificia Academia Mariana Internationalis, 1999), 147-167.
 Inseg XXVIII (2005) 223 [ORE 1886:5].
 Inseg XVI/1 (1993) 1508-1509 [ORE 1295:8].
 For the text of this Eucharistic hymn, cf. Matthew Britt, O.S.B., The Hymns of the Breviary and Missal (New York: Benziger Brothers, Inc, 1948) 191-192. On its origin, cf. New Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967) 1:1124.
 In Domenico Casagrande’s Enchiridion Marianum Biblicum Patristicum (Rome: «Cor Unum», 1974) there are a large number of entries under this phrase.
 Cf. Crocetti, 46; René Laurentin “L’Eucaristia e la Vergine,” in Mons. Antonio Piolanti (ed.), Eucaristia: Il Mistero dell’Altare nel Pensiero e nella Vita della Chiesa (Rome: Desclée & C., 1957) 632-634.
 Inseg XXVI/1 (2003) 506-507 [ORE 1790:IX].
 Inseg VI/1 (1983) 1446-1447 [ORE 788:2].
 Cf. Totus Tuus 193-199.
 Cf. ASS 36 (1903-1904) 452-453 [OL #229-231].
 Inseg VI/1 (1983) 1447 [ORE 788:2].
 The phrase non sine divino consilio is used both in Benedict XV’s Inter Sodalicia [Acta Apostolicæ Sedis hereafter cited as AAS 10 (1918) 182; OL #267]and in §58 of Lumen Gentium to describe Mary’s position beneath the Cross of Jesus as specifically willed by God. While the verbal borrowing of this terminology is indisputable, the conciliar document makes no reference to it.
 AAS 10 (1918) 181-182 [OL #267] emphasis my own.
 AAS 35 (1943) 247-248 [OL #383] emphasis my own. Pius XII quoted this text again in his Encyclical Letter Ad Cæli Reginam of 11 October 1954, AAS 46 (1954) 635 [OL #705].
 Inseg XVIII/1 (1995) 542 [ORE 1384:3] emphasis my own.
 AAS 10 (1918) 182 [OL #267] emphasis my own.
 AAS 12 (1920) 224 [Bro. Richard Zehnle, S.M. (trans.) “Marian Doctrine of Benedict XV,” Marian Reprint (Marian Library, University of Dayton) No. 70:9].
 AAS 48 (1956) 352 [OL #778] emphasis my own.
 Inseg VII/1 (1984) 308-309 [St. Paul Editions 40-41] except for “by her whole life,” emphasis my own.
 Inseg VII/1 (1984) 307 [St. Paul Editions 37-38].
 Inseg VI/1 (1983) 1447 [ORE 788:2].
 OR 6 settembre 1996, p. 4 [ORE 1462:2]. Unfortunately, for some strange reason the original Italian text is not found in the Insegnamenti, but it was published in the daily edition of L’Osservatore Romano on the date indicated and also in Miles Immaculatæ 32:2 (Luglio/Dicembre 1996) 444-446.
 Cf. John A. Schug, O.F.M.Cap., Mary, Mother (Springfield, MA: St. Francis Chapel Press, 1991) 121-199.
 OR 4 giugno 1997, p. 10 [ORE 1494:12].
 Lumen Gentium §25. Cf. Totus Tuus 266-269.
 Inseg XXIV/2 (2001) 192 [ORE 1707:1]. For the second part of the text beginning with “When we celebrate …”, I have followed the English translation from the Polish given in ORE 1776:V where it was quoted in the Instruction by the Congregation for the Clergy of 4 August 2002 “The Priest, Pastor and Leader of the Parish Community”, §13.
 Documenti pontifici secondari, e quindi senza peso dottrinale is the phrase which occurs in the unsigned commentary on the Declaration of the Theological Commission of the Cz stochowa Mariological Congress in OR 4 giugno 1997, p. 10 [ORE 1497:10].
 Cf. Joaquín Ferrer Arellano, “Marian Coredemption and Sacramental Mediation,” in Mary at the Foot of the Cross: III Maria, Mater Unitatis (New Bedford, MA: Academy of the Immaculate, 2003) 70-126.
 Inseg XXIV/2 (2001) 944-945 [ORE 1721:2].
 Cf. Padre Pio’s letter of 1 May 1912 to Padre Agostino wherein he speaks of Our Lady accompanying him to the altar, Padre Pio of Pietrelcina, Letters I (San Giovanni Rotondo, 1980) 312.
 Inseg XXVI/1 (2003) 508 [ORE 1790:IX-X].
 Cf. Arthur Burton Calkins (ed.), TOTUS TUUS. Il Magistero Mariano di Giovanni Paolo II (Siena: Edizioni Cantagalli, 2006) 25-26 and passim.
 Cf. Redemptoris Mater §18.
 Cf. Arthur Burton Calkins, “Pope John Paul II’s Teaching on Marian Coredemption” in Mark I. Miravalle, S.T.D., (ed.), Mary Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate, Theological Foundations II: Papal, Pneumatological, Ecumenical (Santa Barbara, CA: Queenship Publishing Company, 1997) 134-144; “Pope John Paul II’s Ordinary Magisterium on Marian Coredemption: Consistent Teaching and More Recent Perspectives” in Mary at the Foot of the Cross – II: Acts of the Second International Symposium on Marian Coredemption (New Bedford, MA: Academy of the Immaculate, 2002) 21-27.
 Cf. Totus Tuus 208-213.
 Cf. Redemptor Hominis §22; Redemptoris Mater §47.
 Cf. his audiences of 11 May 1983, 23 November 1988, 23 April 1997, 7 May1997.
 Cf. Totus Tuus 238-248.
 On the concept of receiving/welcoming Mary, cf. Totus Tuus 152-153, 240-248.
 Inseg XXVI/2 (2003) 416 [ORE 1815:V].
 Inseg XX/2 (1997) 296, 297 [ORE 1508:7].
 Inseg XXI/1 (1998) 1188-1189 [ORE 1549:XI].
Copyright ©; Msgr Arthur Calkins 2017
This Version: 7th June 2017